Masters Dissertations

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    Evaluation Of Remotely –Sensed Reflected and Emitted Energy for Monitoring Woodland Carbon in Liwale and Kilwa in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Makandi, H. A
    Evaluation Of Remotely –Sensed Reflected and Emitted Energy for Monitoring Woodland Carbon in Liwale and Kilwa in Tanzania. Harun Atupele Makandi Phd (Natural Resource Assessment and Management University of Dar Es Salaam, Institute of Resource Assessments, 2019 A functional, cost-effective, and comprehensive system for respective measurement, resporting and verification (MRV) of forest carbon is important for sustainable forest management. Optical remote sensing datasets are critical for the development of such a system because they are free, and have a wall –to- wall and repetitive coverage. However, their accuracy in estimating woodland above-ground biomass and carbon (AGB and C) using mainstream methods is limited. One such method is using the magnitude of woodland greenness quantified using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) draw from the imagery. NDVI saturates with increasing AGB and C, thereby limiting the range of estimations and accuracy. Also, the greenness fluctuates seasonally in tropical woodlands and evaluates the variable canopy moisture than the otherwise stable AGB and C. Cloud contamination on the datasets is another limitation. There is a need enhance the accuracy of the estimations to leverage the strengths of optical satellite data.The objective of this study was to develop of Forest Biomass Index (FoBI) to model the magnitude of the latent and sensible thermal fluxes prevalent in woodland conditions. The satellite-delivered surface temperature (Ts) and NDVI were combine in the modeling using the index. The magnitude of the fluxes correlates better with woodland AGC and is less prone to seasonal fluctuations than does that of the commonly used woodland greenness. The resulting FoBI maps were regressed with plot-based AGC measurement to estimate the AGC in Liwale and Kilwa districts in 2014 and 2018 and its change between the two years. The regression of the FoBI maps of 2014 with plot-based AGC returned R2 of 0.52 and 0.58 respectively. This compared favourably to R2 of 0.44 from pairing the annual NDVI map of 2014 wuith plot estimate. Also, the range of estimation of FoBI map was from 0 to 266 t ha-1 C, over twice that of NDVI. FoBI’s extended range indicates the elimination of the saturation problem at least for estimations of AGC IN miombo woodlands. Cloid cover was also eliminated by compositing multiple Ts and NDVI layers using the maximum value compositing (MVC) method. Using the regressed FoBI maps of 2014 and 2018, the mean carbon stock density I the study area was estimated to be 44 t ha-1 at 95% confidence level in both years. The total AGC was about 220 Mt in 2014 and 213 in 2018. Change analysis shows a decline of 6.6 Mt (ca.3%) of total AGC between the two years, indicating general stability of the AGC pools in Liwale and Kilwa. The developed FoBI enhances the accuracy of comprehensive and repetitive estimations of woodland AGC using free and widely available optical satellite datasets by eliminating the main cited problems with using them. Using FoBI , the monitoring reporting, and verification of woodland carbon stocking meeting international standards of reporting can be done.
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    Implications of social enterprises on the adaptive capacity of small holder farmers to climatic stresses. The case of Kilolo District, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kulanga, Stanley Gama
    This study was conducted in Kilolo district with the aim of understanding the contribution of agricultural social enterprises in enhancing the adaptive capacity of the small; holder farmers to the impacts of climate change and variability. Specifically this study sought to assess the role of agricultural social enterprises in supporting smallholder farmers to address climatic and non-climatic stresses, determine the capacity levels among smallholder farmers engaging and those who were not engaging with agricultural social enterprises to adapt to climate change and variability and lastly, examine challenges and opportunities for agricultural social enterprises operating in the study area .This study involved 90 households whereby household heads/representatives were used as respondents . The primary data for this study were collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions, whereas the secondary data were collected through a review of literature related to this study and from Iringa meteorological station for mean annual rainfall and temperature data for the past 30 years (1989 fo2019 ).Statistical product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyze quantitative data collected through household questionnaire, while mean annual rainfall and temperature trend data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel 2007.The qualitative data which was collected through focus group discussion and key informant interviews was analyzed though content analysis Tables and figures were used to present the analyzed data .The findings revealed that the agricultural social enterprise supported smallholder farmers to address climatic and non –climatic stresses by providing input-extension service to its customers and consequently, led to an increase of average maize production per acre by 54.5 %.Similarly, this study found that the agricultural social enterprise enhanced the adaptive capacity of the smallholder famers, since the services it provided influenced the functioning of the determinants of adaptive capacity such as social capital, economic resource technology awareness and training institution and infrastructure. Furthermore this study found that limited purchasing power of the famers and market
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    Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Gendered Roles in Rural Tanzania: case of Kisarawe District
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Venance, Wolfugang Paul
    Climate change and variability have received consideration throughout the world. Its impact has affected different social and economic systems. The study aimed at understanding the impacts of climate change and variability on gender roles in rural Tanzania, taking Kisarawe District as a case study. A mixed research design was employed in this study. In collecting quantitative data. Key informant interview and Focus Group Discussion were used, whereas of households participated in household survey questionnaire that were selected using simple random sampling techniques participants for FGD and KII were obtained through purposive sampling. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed in this study. The resulting findings were presented in tables, charts graphs and contents descriptions. Overall, study findings indicate that the annual rainfall, annual minimum and maximum temperature over the past 30 years show an increasing trend. It was found that some gender roles have changed as a result of responding to a climate change and variability. In particular, roles of men used to be mainly burning charcoal and doing small trades to get family income, whilst, the roles of women were mainly domestic activities like fetching water, collecting firewood and cooking. However, women were found to be switching to doing activities, that were traditionally done by men. For example, some women were resorting to charcoal making and engaging in petty trade. Likewise, men were found to be engaging in activities that were traditionally done by women including helping their wives’ in domestic activities , like cooking food, fetching water and collecting firewood. This change of traditional gender roles could be associated with changes in climatic condition in the area, which has been forcing communities to respond using various measures, some of which crossing traditional gender lines. From results, the majority (96.8/% and 80.0%) of the male respondents and (89.7% and 62.7%) of the female respondents from both Chole and Kwala villages respectively respond by planting varieties of crops and changing of economic activities. Furthermore, from discussion, it was stated that both men and women respond by helping each other in every activity in a household regardless of gender. Nevertheless, the response strategies practiced were found to be short term and geared to address immediate climatic crisis rather that transformative adaptations that could be sustainable and effective in addressing such challenges.
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    Role of civil society organizations in building coastal communities' adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change and variability; a case of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Luanda, Walter Rodney
    Impacts of climate change are felt differently by societies with varied social and economic conditions. Building adaptive capacity of these societies is increasingly crucial. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in building coastal communities' adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change and variability. Specifically, it examined the strategies used by these CSOs in building adaptive capacity; the responses of coastal communities to CSO's adaptive capacity strategies; and the outcomes of CSO interventions on coastal communities' livelihoods. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data in two villages of Bagamoyo district namely Dunda and Makurunge. The study involved a sample of three hundred and thirty-six (336) local people as major respondents who were randomly selected for questionnaire survey. A total of thirty-six (36) key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Observations were conducted in different occasions during the visits to the study area. Thematic analysis technique was used to analyse qualitative data, and SPSS version 20 was used to analyse quantitative data. The findings of this study reveal that the key strategies CSOs use in building adaptive capacity to coastal communities to the impacts of climate change and variability include skills development and capacity building in climate resilience; helping village administrative officials in preparation and execution of projects on environmental conservation; protecting natural resources and creating demonstration farms; facilitating stakeholders participation in discussing environmental matters and assessing the vulnerability of peoples' livelihood systems for climate resilience. Moreover, the study revealed that coastal communities have responded to such CSOs' efforts by adopting new farming techniques; seed varieties; water harvesting technology; and by acquiring knowledge about future possible changes. These adopted climate change adaptation strategies have impacted local communities' livelihoods through saving time for fetching water and improved health; increasing household income and maintaining healthy functioning of coastal and marine ecosystem. It is concluded that CSOs have played a formidable role to build adaptive capacity of coastal communities to climate change impacts. Thus, there is a need for CSOs in collaboration with the government to co-design strategies that can further improve local peoples' livelihood systems by alleviating poverty and unemployment to enhance resilience and boost adaptation to climate change and variability
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    Indigenous knowledge on pasture management for adaptation to climate change in pastoral communities,
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Mfinanga, Sabitina Abdi
    This study was adopted to investigate the indigenous Knowledge on pasture management for adaptation to climate change in Parakuyo village. Simple random techniques were used to obtain the study sample. Qualitative data were collected using key informant interview, focus group discussions and participatory field observation, while quantitative data were collected using household questionnaire survey. Documentary search was also used to collect secondary data. Analysis of qualitative data was done using content analysis technique, while quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Findings from the study have shown that, indigenous knowledge practice by pastoralist play significant role in the management of animal pasture as well as their animals in the changing climate. Most of the pastoralist depends on their own local knowledge for understanding and evaluating climatic related and weather variations such knowledge included traditional fodder conservation practices (enclosure grazing) and seasonal mobility used to manage pasture in a changing climate. Also decreasing the number of livestock such as sale of weak and old animals before the dry season and increase of livestock diversifications were the coping mechanisms of livestock keepers in the study area. The study has also revealed that major factors contributing to indigenous knowledge were age, level of education, house hold size, gender, and income from livestock. The study also revealed the factors contributing to the disappearance of indigenous knowledge in pastoral community, which included conflict between pastoralist and farmers, lack of information on weather and extension services. This study concludes that the indigenous knowledge play an important role in pasture management so it should be developed to reducing the risks associated with climate change. This study recommends that the community should diversify to other environmentally friendly economic activities so that they can earn income rather than relying on livestock as well as reducing pressure on natural pasture when climatic condition is not favorable. Also the government of Tanzania should put more effort on training and advocating pastoral communities to use improve breed animal to avoid overgrazing as well as to increase productivity.
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    The role of rural-urban migration among youths in enhancing climate change adaption of rural communities in Mtwara district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Joseph, Michael
    This study was conducted in Mtwara District to assess the role of rural-urban migration among youths in enhancing climate change adaptation of rural communities. Purpose sampling and simple random sampling techniques were applied to obtain four study villages and household, respectively. Open ended questionnaires were used for household, interview guides were applied to key informants and focus group discussions were conducted in the four villages. Field data were analyzed by using cross-tabulation, analysis of frequencies and correlation with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 of 2010. Microsoft Excel 2010 was applied in analysis of descriptive statistics. Findings of this study revealed that climate of Mtwara district has not significantly changed over the past thirty years. However, what were experienced were impacts of climate variability. The impacts were reported to be the reason for the decline in agricultural crops and fish catches. Adaptation measures such as diversification of income sources planting resistant crops and joining in various clubs to share knowledge for solving climate related challenges were found to be inefficient with respect to the observed impacts since majority of residents reported to be affected had nothing to do. Low education level of respondents was one of the major factors for inefficient adaptation measures. Since there were few opportunities and low level of investments in villages, youths have been migrating as a means to secure their income. In fishers’ migration was directed towards other fishing villages which were temporary. Majority of youths in farmers’ villages were migrating to urban canters out of the region both temporary and permanently. I n view of the above, all forms of migration brought benefits within a short time. Due to long time of youths’ absence, families last man-power and were left with difficult living conditions. In light of this, education is needed on impacts of climate change and variability in villages of Mtwara district and infrastructures like roads, markets and schools have to be improved to reduce distress migration.
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    The status of mangrove forests in selected areas along the Bagamoyo coast within the context of climate change
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Ndimubenya, Mathias
    This study aimed to assess the current states of mangrove forests in selected areas along the Bagamoyo coastline in contests to climate change. Three major mangrove stands were selected including the Kiharaka, Kondo and Kaole mangrove stands. Eight mangrove species were found in both Kondo and Kaole mangrove stands which are Sonneratia alba, Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, Herritiera littoralis, Lumnitzera racemosa and Bruguiera gvmnorrhiza while only five mangrove species were found at Kiharaka mangrove stand which are Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum and Lumnitzera racemosa. Forest cover and structure was determined by measuring the heights and diameter (DBH) of mature trees, saplings and seedlings. Average heights of different species in different mangrove stands were statistically analyzed (by using one — way ANOVA) to justify the difference in height, the results show the value of height in these three mangrove stands do not differ. Mangrove vegetation characteristics were assessed using two important indices namely; complex index (CI) and importance value index (IVI). Based on the analysis of IVI of mangrove vegetation, results showed that the composition of vegetation in the three observed locations has high homogeneity, but it has low level heterogeneity. Mangrove zonation in Kondo and Kaole mangrove stands is very clear but is unclear within the Kiharaka mangrove stand. The study also discovered that the human encroachment has been the primary cause of mangrove loss in study areas compared to the effect of climate change.
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    Performance of alternative energy sources in supporting REDD+ implementation in Zanzibar.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Gaganija, Mary Holo
    The study was undertaken to assess the performance of two HIMA alternative energy sources interventions to drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and leakage strategy: (a) improving fuel efficiency through Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS ) in Zanzibar rural and (b) fuel switching to free Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPL;) distribution in Zanzibar urban. The results attained through data analysis of questionnaire information using SPSS showed that 67% of respondents that purchased ICS in Zanzibar rural and 73% of respondents that received free LPG in Zanzibar Urban continued to use the sources. However, alternative energy sources usage were in combination with traditional cooking energy sources chiefly fuel wood and charcoal in Zanzibar rural and urban respectively. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test revealed that the usage of Altman+. c map sources was influenced by the positive perception and affordability of the energy sources, while education, marital status and family size, conversely showed no influence on the usage. This study concludes that the adoption of alternative energy sources and complete fuel switching will be achieved through holistic approach. It's therefore crucial to raising awareness on the importance and benefits of alternative energy, access to information and knowledge of alternative energy and energy policy reform through clean energy sources tax reforms and fuel subsidies. It is imperative to continue and promote programs and strategies that aim to improve community livelihoods and income as the use of biomass is inextricably baked with poverty.
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    Impact of farmer-pastorist conflicts on livelihood and conservation around Mikumi national park.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) John, Jonesia
    Farmer-pastoralist conflicts have been reported in different parts of Africa, in most cases, resource scarcity has been presented as the main reason for such conflicts. In Tanzania, farmers and pastoralists have found themselves in conflicts; sometimes have resulted in loss of lives and destruction of crops and other assets. This study was therefore conducted to assess the impacts of farmer pastoralist conflicts to livelihood and conservation around Mikumi National Park. Specifically, the study intended to explore the magnitude of the conflict, to examine the changes of these conflicts over time since 2010 and also to determine the main causes and effects. The study was conducted in two villages namely, Doma and Mikumi. Data were mainly collected using house hold questionnaire interviews, key informant interviews, group discussions and observations. A random sampling technique was used during questionnaire survey whereby, a total of 146 respondents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using Statistical package for social science (SPSS) and excel programs. The study proved that there was a farmer- pastoralist conflict in the study area and the main causes were competition over resources, particularly water, land and pasture. The ongoing conflicts affected both human livelihoods and conservation of Mikumi National Park as it resulted into increase of environmental dependent activities such as illegal charcoal harvesting. Based on the findings, agent intervention is needed to identify new, and improve existing strategies for managing and conservation of these crucial resources in order to reduce conflicts.
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    Development and use of allometric models for carbon sequestration and storage analysis of two coastal forest tree species in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Shadrack, Masanja
    The present study was conducted to develop tree species specific allometric models and compare carbon storage and sequestration potential of two lowland tree species i.e Sclerocarya caffra and Ptelepsis myrtifolia. Since, species allometric equations have been largely developed in Miombo woodlands in Tanzania? It was decided that more studies should focus on developing species allometric models for lowland species so as to be able to assess the contribution of lowland tree species to national and global vegetation carbon stocks as well as in mitigation initiatives. Allometric model development involved the use of destructive sampling of 64 trees from which 30 trees for S caffra and 34 trees for P myrtifolia were sampled from 28 plots. Field measurements of stem diameter (dbh) and height (ht) were carried out using a caliper and clinometer respectively. The mean diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (ht) for Sclerocarya caffra were 29.22cm (range 10.1-57cm) and 11.55m (range 5.9-20.7) and for Ptleopsis myrtifolia were 24.8cm (10.2-45.7) and 11.16m (5.8-18cm) respectively. The best fit allometric equations for above ground biomass (AGB) used diameter at breast height (dbh) as the only predictor variable with coefficient fo determination r2=0.96, RES=56.3 and AIC=378.5 for Sclerocarya caffra and r2=0.93, RSE=124.5 AIC=374.5 for Pteleopsis myrtifolia respectively. Based on the species specific allometric equations so developed the estimated carbon storage and sequestration were respectively found to be 317.03Kg C tree-1yr-1 for Pteleopsis myrtifolia tree species. Tissues carbon was analysed using CHN Elemental Analyser Model EA 11008 and was found to be 41.46% for Pteleopsis myrtifolia.
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    Pastoral adaptation to climate change and variability and to non-climatic factors in Simanjiro district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Senkondo, Richard
    The study assessed the usefulness of adaptation strategies to impacts of climate change and variability and to non- climatic factors at Terat and Ruvu-Remit villages in Simanjiro District,. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect and analyse data. Random sampling was employed to select 97 households for the survey. High –resolution rainfall and temperature datasets were used to computer and analyse temperature and rainfall climatologies and their associated trends for the period of 1983-2103. This was done using GeoClim and ENACTSMAPROOMS tools, which provided opportunities for accessing and analysing high resolution rainfall and temperature, since both tools uses satellite merged in-situ observation and thus significantly enhancing spatial coverage of data. The trend analysis results for both maximum and minimum temperature indicates a statistical significant increasing temperature, with the former being more pronounced and fast. Over the last two decades, positive temperature anomalies of between 0.50C to 20C have been depicted for maximum temperature, while minimum temperature exhibited some positive anomalies of between 0.50C to1.20C. Trend analysis in high resolution rainfall datasets indicates a declining rainfall trends across the MAM and OND seasons and on annual timescale, though the depicted trends are not statistically significant consistent to global and regional observations. Assessment of the communities’ perception on climate variability and change indicates that, majority of respondents 80.4% reported that temperature was increasing, 90.7% reported that, rainfall was decreasing. Mobility has been a dominant coping and adaptation strategy to climate change and variability and to non-climatic factors. Improved livelihoods among many, as an outcome of adaptation strategies included the construction of modern house (iron roofed) and increased food stock at household level. The chi square test showed a significant relation between gender perceptions on effectiveness of coping and adaptation strategies to both climate and non-climatic factors where person Chi-Square (X2) =10.61, N=97, degree of difference (df) =1 and p<0.001. This study concludes that sustainability of pastoralism in Terat and Ruvu-Remit villages is likely to be compromised without mobility practices. The study recommends for design and implementation of land use to minimize further encroachment of rangelands by non-pastoral activities. Scientific researches should be conducted on invasive plant species currently colonizing rangelands.
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    Community responses to the impact of climate change and variability in Mlingotini and Kondo villages Bagamoyo district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Muhogolo, Joshua Anderson
    This study was conducted in Mlingotini and Kondo Villages in Bagamoyo District. The study aimed at investigating community responses to the impact of climate variability in Mlingotini and Kondo Villages. Primary and secondary data were collected using quantitative and qualitative methods; Primary data were collected from 10% of respondents interviewed in each village. Secondary data were obtained from trend computer software, SPSS version 20 and Microsoft excel were used in data analysis. Fishing and agriculture are the major livelihood activities in Mlingotini and Kondo Villages. Unreliable and early cessations of rainfalls have decreased fish catches and agriculture production. Fishers respond to climate variability through conducting deep sea fishing due to the decrease in fish catch in nearby shallow ocean shores. Another response strategy is the use of improved and better fishing gears such as engine boats and fishing nets used for fishing long distances on the ocean. Fishers also respond by shifting to other livelihood activities such as business. Farmers respond to the impact of climate variability by changing planting calendar whereby they are planting early immediately after the early rains so as to cope with unreliable and early cessation of rainfalls. Farmers also start to apply agrochemicals due to the increase of agricultural pests and diseases. The study recommends provision of community education on climate change, its related impacts and better adaptation options on fishing and agriculture. Modern fishing gears for fishers are required to improve fish catches, while fast maturing and drought resistance crop varieties are required to improve crop yields.
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    Impact of climate change adaptation strategies on livelihood of female headed households in coastal region of Tanzania: the case of Ruvu ward in Kibaha rural district
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kidwaka, Sakina Ali
    The overall objective of this study was to grasp how female-headed households adapt to climate change impacts and its implications on community livelihood to female headed households in Ruvu Ward. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were obtained through questionnaires, interviews and field observations while secondary data were obtained through the review of data collected from official and published sources. Data were analysed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) where descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used. The analysis was largely descriptive involving computation of frequencies and percentages. The findings show that climate change has mostly affected the livelihood of Female Headed Households in Ruvu Ward over 30 years leading 72.5% of the population to live in poor condition. This has made a difficult situation for the household heads to meet their basic subsistence. Climate change has caused food insecurity, unreliable harvest and poor living standard. Results also confirm that, there is a major association between the age of respondents’, education level and financial assistance with adaptation strategies. A number of adaptation strategies related to climate change are also in a place including, growing drought tolerant crops, more spending on irrigation, engaging on Village Community Banks and some businesses. A number of key actors consist of the government, non-governmental organizations, media and environmental committee also exist who assist the adaptation to Climate Change through environmental learning, awareness creation and policy formulation. In conclusion, Climate Change threatens the livelihood of Female Headed Households in Ruvu Ward. Therefore, different institutions including the government, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders need to take some positive steps in enhancing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies since the efforts done so far are insufficient because adaptation strategies to Climate.
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    Assessing adaptive capacity to climate change among smallholder farmers in Bunda district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Mung’onya, Josephat Malero
    This study was designed to assess the adaptive capacity to climate change among smallholder farmers in Bunda District, in two villages, namely Bulamba and Kabainja. The study used a mixed approach, but mainly dominated by qualitative approach and complemented with quantitative elements. The objectives of the study were to: explore the extent farmers perceive and experience climate change in the area; find out various effects of climate change in the area as perceived by the farmers; determine adjustment strategies adopted by the farmers and investigated how farmers’ interaction with social institutions. Data were collected from eighty nine (89) mixed farmers randomly selected from the study area, using household survey. Other means namely key informants interview, focus group discussion, field observations and secondary data review were used to collect the data. Results show that most of the farmers (100) were in arrangement that the climate is changing in the area and that changes in rainfall pattern were most prominent. Farmers perceived reduced crop yield, increased drought, among others, as the greatest adverse effects of climate change. Some of the strategies adopted to combat the adverse effects included; adjustment by adopting early planting and use of improved crop varieties, among others. Farmers were found to have low levels of capacity to adopt to climate change without social institutions’ involvement. It was concluded that examining how smallholders adapt to climate change and variability (CC&V) may provide significant approach for mainstreaming climate change adaptation policies in national development strategies to enhance adaptive capacity. It was finally recommended that adaptation interventions designed to enhance adaptive capacity on smallholders to the impacts of climate change in Bunda District and the nation at large should be holistic and address the day-to –day smallholders’ problems.
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    Assessment of climate change impacts on ecosystem services and livelihoods of communities adjacent to mitarure forest reserve in Kilwa district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Gosbert, Godfrey
    Ecosystems are natural resources which provide life-support services of marvelous worth. However these services are under threat from global change and climate change which alter their functionality or even totally expel them over space and time. Human –being depends on the services provided by nature, and people too often damage which is triaggered by human actions up on the environment, directly, or indirectly in turn affect human being through a number of ways, ecosystem services reduction inclusive. This study specifically intended to analyzes climate change actions on Mitarure forest reserve, to examine the dynamics of ecosystem services provision in the study area between 1987 and 2017 sheet, to assess the implication of climate change actions and ecosystem services change on the livelihoods of communities around Mitarure forest reserve. The study used qualitative and quantitative research designs. There was the use of questionnaire survey, in depth interviews, direct observation, focus group discussions, remote sensing and literature review techniques. While key informants and study villages were randomly selected and purposively, about 91 household heads in four selected villages were randomly selected and interviewed by the researcher. The study used Statistical Product and Service Solution (IBM-SPSS) software version 20 to analyze quantitative data and used Microsoft Office Excel 2007 sheet to plot tables, graphs and pie charts so as to give frequencies and percentages while content analysis was used in analyzing qualitative data. Qualitative data were presented in the form of tabular percentage. The study revealed that the study area experiences rainfall variability, increasing incidences of droughts, eruption of pests and diseases, temperature increase, wildfires and increasing disturbances of wild animals as some signs of climate change. The mean annual rainfall has been in decreasing trend at a non-significant rate of R2=0.0023 and both mean annual maximum and minimum temperature have increased in the last 30 years. Satellite images of 15 years interval indicated that the forest composition has changed in three different years (1987, 2002 and 2017) with the decrease of closed woodland by 8,179 ha replaced by grassland in some parts. 96.7% of respondents revealed that ecosystem services have affected the livelihoods of local communities through causing famine and hunger, water scarcity, food insecurity, low incomes and poverty increase. The study also revealed that local communities have developed adaptation and coping strategies such as water harvesting, three planting and participatory Forest Management. The study recommends that more technical studies and awareness creation and climate change science and response mechanisms should be conducted involving government officials and local communities so as to rise awareness on climate change related matters
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    Assessment of barriers to climate change adaptation by smallholder farmers in Dodoma city
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Chiwanga, Festo Jonas
    The main focus of this study was to investigate the major barriers which hinder to effective adaptation among the smallholder farmers. This study was conducted in Dodoma City whereby, Multistage sampling techniques was used to sample four villages and wards while simple random and purposive technique was used to select sample size from the population sample. The total of 150 of respondents from all four villages was selected for data were collected. Primary data were collected by different research methods includes key informants interview. FGD, household survey and field observation. Secondary data were obtained through reviewing published and unpublished materials, and data on rainfall and temperature trends was obtained from TMA in Dodoma station. The quantitative data collected from household survey were coded and edited in SPSS 20 version and Microsoft excel while descriptive statistics was used to summarize data in terms of mean, percentage and frequencies while charts, tablets and graphs were used to present quantitatively analyzed data. Moreover, factors of barriers to adaptation by smallholder farmers, whereby the variables that were loaded by 0.477 were not used and those factors loaded more than one barrier were also rejected. The results show that the smallholder farmers perceived temperature increase with the decreases of rainfall cover time. These data corresponded with those obtained from TMA Dodoma station. These data corresponded with those obtained from TMA Dodoma station. These fluctuations had several impacts on agriculture production. Among the impact mentioned by the respondents included; recurrent drought, water shortage and spread of pets and diseases. Apparently, farmers have developed both short term and long-term adaptation. The short- term measures adopted by farmers were off-farm activities; sell assets and buy food, reduce number or meals in a day, purchasing food on credit and borrow food from neighbors or relatives. The major long-term adaptation mechanisms opted by farmers were planting drought tolerant crops, early planting and application of manure. Furthermore, the smallholder farmers identified barriers which hindering to effective adaptation includes; lack of credit, high cost of processing facilities, financial constraints, low income, lack of education and skills among the farmers, traditional beliefs, land conflicts poor weather forecasting and early warming sign as well as lack of institutional support.
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    Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources and Its Implication Agricultural Production on Songea Rural District Area
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2015) Sudi, Samwel Ghamunga
    This study aimed at assessing climate change impacts on water resources and its implication in agriculture production. The study was carried out in songea rural district Tanzania. Both primary and secondary data sources were used during data collection. Primary data on the perception of people were obtained through, focus group discussion and interview and qualified by observations. While primary data on river flow and metrological trends were obtained from Ruvuma sub-basin office in Songea and Tanzania Metrological Agency Headquarters in Dar Es Salaam Respectively. The finding shows that the local people perceive that there are already changes in rainfall and temperature Empirical analysis of rainfall suggest decreasing rainfall by 110 mm for the past 33 years as well as an increase in average minimum annual temperature in early 2010’s. These changes have already affected water resources as well as crop and livestock resulting in decreased water availability and reduction in agricultural production. Moreover, the study has shown that domestic water users and small scale farmers have employed various adaptation and mitigation measures to cope with the effects of climate change. Respondents suggested various adaptation and mitigation measures that may assist in reducing impacts of climate change. As the study found that some of the adaptation strategies used might not be sustainable in the long run, it recommended that more effective measures should be used to rescue the situation. Such measures could include reforestation projects.
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    Effectiveness of environmental Impact Assessment in Tanzania - Buzwagi Gold Mine
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Kadilanha, Sengati
    This study aimed to assess the Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Tanzania — Buzwagi Gold mine. It was conducted in 2015 within Mwendakulima Ward in Kahama town Council where the mine is located. Data collection methods included review of the BGM EIS, household's questionnaires interviews, Focus Group Discussion, Key informants’ interview and personal field observation. A sample of 161 households was randomly selected from four (4) mitaa namely: Mwendakulima, Busalala, Mwime and Chapulwa. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 computer program. Several factors influencing the EIA were identified. The most significant factors were; the BGM EIA did not fulfill the requirement of the EIA and Audit regulations, 2005 and EMA, 2004. Generally, these factors had implications on decision making and poor impacts identification and assessment which resulted to significant negative environmental impacts. Settlements in the ward were too close to the BGM and some in the wind direction. The community members were affected. Hence; the BGM EIA was not effective. Data collection problems included respondents' biases especially the BGM mining authorities were not cooperative. Also, some of the pieces of information concerning with the BGM EIA were not provided by the NEMC authorities as was requested. Problems were tackled through regular contact and visit. The recommendations were directed to the Buzwagi Gold mine and relevant Government institutions. The findings of the research have revealed the current status of the EIA and the source of the problems facing the communities residing near the mining areas in Tanzania.
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    Assessing Contribution of Artisanal Mining to Improving Livelihoods; the Case of Nyakabale, Geita Town,Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2015) Sadiki, Samson
    This study assessed contribution of artisanal mining to improving livelihoods at Nyakabale, Geita Town. Despite the fact that most studies focused on artisanal and small-scale mining, very little is known on contribution of artisanal mining to improvement of livelihoods in this study area. Thus, this research intended to fill the knowledge gap on the contribution of Artisanal mining to improving livelihoods. The objectives of the study were: to assess the income at household level of Artisanal miners apart from involving in such activity; to identify factors for people's involvement in artisanal mining; to examine the contribution of Artisanal mining on household income and to assess the measures that could be taken to ensure the sustainability of livelihood in mining communities. A total of 162 households were involved, whereby 41 households were artisanal miners and 121 households were non-artisanal miners. Data collection methods used were documentary review; focus group discussion and questionnaire survey. Findings from the study reveal that 23 percent of total households at Nyakabale Street were involved in artisanal mining. Findings from this study showed that, artisanal mining contributes positively to livelihoods of Nyakabale dwellers. However, benefits are rather minimal because of several constraints encountered. In view of this, the importance of artisanal mining needs to be helped by policy makers in relation to individual, household and community benefits. Realization of these benefits will enhance development in exploitation of this non-renewable natural resource.
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    Cost, Productivity and Recovery Studies Tabora, Tabora Misitu, Products Saumills Limited, Tabora
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1980) Iddi, Said
    A study to assess the performance of Tabora Misitu Products Saumills Limited was carried out. The objective were: -(a) to make a production cost analysis, (b) to carry out time studies at the head saw to qualify downtime (c) to investigate the effect of log dimensions technical and value recovery (d) to attempt to establish the relationship between taper, eccentricity, sweep, heart rot end knots end technical and value recovery. cost for the years 1975 through 1970 were compiled and analyzed. The headsaw was studied for 17 days at the start or rains in November—December 1978. During March—April 1979, the peak rain period, the studies were repeated for a total of 37 days. A total of 146 Jogs, 46 Mninga, Pterocarpusanqolensis and 100 mtundu, Brachystegiaspiciformis were measured for technical and value recocery calculation after breakdown. Defects on each logs recorded. The main results were: (1). In all years, logging contributed most to the total production costs per m3 of sawn wood. (2). Effective saving time in the Study period averaged 42, of the total work place time. Downtime due to power cuts alone was 29 of the total work place time. (3) The studied logs ranged from 30 to 55 cm o. mid—diameter while length varied between 2.0 and 6.1 meters. Within those limits there was no strong relationship between log dimensions and lumber recovery percent. (4) There was a small, significant difference between mean actual and theoretical recovery in mtundu logs in the mid—diameter and length classes. (5) Mtundu logs showed a small, significant negative correlation between length and value recovery. (6) Value recovery differences in the mid—diameter classes were significant only in mtundu logs. The quality of the logs was generally good. Due to limitations on log sizes and non—matching of the study logs, it was difficult to conclude Whether or not there was room for improving lumber and value recovery. It was suggested that rates used to buy logs from private loggers be reviewed critically in order to keep logs cost down. Well planned logging could rid the mill of buying logs from privates loggers. Introduction of cost accounting may improve the performance of the mill. There is underutilization of mill capacity due to mainly to power cuts. To offsets this the mill could buy its own generator but carefully economic calculations would have to be made.