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    Tanzania's natural heritage
    (Fosbrooke, 1951) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    Tanzanians welcome tourists to their country to share with them their rich heritage of wildlife and other unique tourist attractions. Within Tanzania 934,400 km area are to be found some of the mildest and most exciting varieties of wildlife in the Whole world. Over four million wild animals roam within Tanzania's border. These include the majority of African game animals ranging from the "BIG FIVE” - elephant, rhino, lion leopard and buffalo which are to be under in most parts of the country in abundance, to cheetah, hunting dogs, and hyena. Also they are host of antelope, rare oryx generuk and the gazelles- generally referred to as the northern species and the Puku sable antelope, southern Reed-buck known as the Southern species Sub-species of the main species are also found e.g. the East African Eland, the Livingstone, the Hippotragus, Niger and the East African sable (also known as Roosevelt). Such is the wealth of Tanzania's wildlife, which will make you always remember your visit and say: THIS IS TANZANIA-.The Government has set aside vast areas of land for national parks, game reserves and game controlled areas with wildlife concentration and variety unparalleled anywhere else in Africa and indeed in the whole world. It is also doing its best" to protect wildlife areas for education, tourism, recreation and above all posterity. There are twelve national parks in the country most of which are concentrated in the "Northern Tourist Circuit" and the rest ore scattered in other parts of the country
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    Tsetse Clearing in Mbulu District, 1936-1952, Arusha Integrated Regional Development Plant
    (Fosbrooke, 1936) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    This paper is designed to show how a large group of people whose livelihood is threatened can respond to save themselves. But they must know what the threat is, what the remedy is, and be given adequate leadership and technical guidance to apply the remedy. In brief, the people of the Hbulu District (now Mbulu and Hanang) were increasing beyond the capacity of their country to carry them. This was early appreciated Tjy the Government, as when in 1930 the Bagshawe land Commission recommended that the Oldeani-Karatu- Mbulumbulu area be reserved for the expansion of the overcrowded and rapidly increasing Iraqw. The constraints against expansion were the usual lack of infrastructure in the expansion areas - roads, water supply and social services - but the greatest constraint was the tsetse fly. For all the people of the area are cattle people, Iraqw, Gorowa, Hbugwe and Barabaig (Tatog):the first three are settled cultivators with strongly cattle oriented culture whilst the last named are basically Pastoralists wherry circumstances have forced to practice a limited amount of arable agriculture.
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    A treetops for Tanzania
    (Fosbrooke, 1961) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    So Tanzania wants a Treetops's but it can’t have it in Ngorongoro Crater. I There seems an obvious solution to this problem - look for another site. But before developing this theme, it seems advisable to study the lessons to be drawn from the Ngorongoro controversy, which as an ex-Conservator of the Area I have followed from afar with great interest. The reasons for establishing a 'Treetops' have been clearly set out, both by Mr. Leavitt, the Managing Director of the Crater Lodge in his letter to the Standard of 5th June and in the Ministerial statement issued on 28th May. A 'Treetops' would attract more tourists to Tanzania and give them an experience that cannot be obtained elsewhere. Structurally, buildings can be erected which are aesthetically satisfying, with a minimum disturbance to the environment. Services can be maintained, as Mr--. Leavitt explains, without detriment to the peace and tranquility of the site by a number of ingeneous methods, including disposable utensils to overcome the problem of dish-washing. Incidentally the problems of sanitation, the pumping of water and the generation of electricity have not been mentioned in the correspondence I have seen, but they are issues which can all be settled by the application of ingenuity and finance, neither of which should be spared on such a project.
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    The Utilization of Indigenous Institutions in Formulating and Implementing Land Use Systems. A Paper prepared for The HADO - Seminar on 5th March,
    (Fosbrooke, 1984) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    Out of the many aspects of the Irangi Land use problems, this paper confines itself to a subject which has been largely neglected in the plethora of reports submitted, particularly by the last two publications, namely- "Soil Conservation in Tanzania: the Hado Project in Dodoma Region", by C. G. Wenner, Ajg. 1983 and "Ten Years of HADO" by A. C. Mbegu and IV. C. Mlenge, Feb. 1984. On this subject, Professor Wenner states "I do not agree to the need of research on socio-economic or cultural-anthropological factors, which is argued by some reports". Mbegu and Mlenge are silent on the subject. In contrast, President Nyerere is particularly outspoken about this. As is strikingly displayed in the Hado Project Manager's Office, the President says:- Go to the people. Live among them. Learn from them. Love them. Serve them. Plan with them. Start with what they know. Build on what they have. Further, when referring to the utilization of indigenous institutions, the President amplified by saying. We are not just trying to go backwards into the traditional past. We are trying to retain the traditional values of human equality and dignity, whilst taking advantage of modern knowledge about the advantages of scale and improved tools. In the socio-ecological sphere there are two distinct fields about which we should learn. The first is the techniques which the many varied ethnic groups hove evolved to ensure their survival, and secondly the sanctions which each society has devised to ensure conformity so that the accepted techniques are applied by all for the good of all.
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    What is The Botswana Society Planning for 1987?
    (Fosbrooke, 1987) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    The 1987 lecture list is enclosed. They are all held at the Museum and start 7.30 p.m. unless otherwise indicated. The Society has been invited by the Town organise a a day and half day seminar on the National scheduled for July and, as in the past, published. The Society is to organise a symposium to coincide with the 21st Anniversary of Independence. The subject will be Setswana culture. The aim is to bring together people from all over Botswana to say what Setswana culture is, what is valuable about it and how it can be kept unique. We don't want to see it preserved in a glass case; culture is dynamic and must change. What we want is to record important aspects and see how they could be developed. The document from this symposium should be of real value in helping the Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs to develop its culture programmes.
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    The Wild Life Conservation Society of Zambia
    (Fosbrooke, 1967) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    The Lusaka Branch of the Wild Life Conservation Society were indeed lucky to have Henry Fosbrooke as Chairman for two years. He has done so much for the Branch and for the Society as a whole since January, 1967, that one tended to think of him as working full time for the Society, and to forget that he was employed in Zambia as Co- Manager of the Kafue Basin Sur-vey, an extremely exacting task in itself. It is quite amazing that he managed to do both jobs so well and with such enthusiasm, and still find time to write a book which is certain to be a best-seller. Following a First in Anthropology at Cambridge, Henry Fosbrooke moved to Tanganyika in 1931 as a District Officer, and became interested in the complex problems involved in the association between man and his environment, on which he wrote extensively in various scientific journals. This experience led to his apointment as the Senior Sociologist in the Tanganyika Government. In 1955, he moved to Lusaka for the first time, as Director of the Rhodes Livingstone Institute. Here he remained until 1961, when his disagreement with the policy of absorbing the Institute with the University of Salisbury led to his resignation. He returned on invitation to Tanganyika to report on the human problems associated with the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and as a consequence of his report he was appointed as Conservator of the Unit, a post he held until August, 1965. In this time he put in a considerable amount of work, reducing poaching to minimal levels, and boosting tourism in a manner that Zambia would do well to follow. He has just completed a book on the area, which will be published next year. I was lucky enough to see a draft of the manuscript, and most of the photographs. This tremendously authoritative book is guaranteed to be a best-seller, and will be a; "must” on the shelves of all conservationists. He returned to Zambia early in 1966, as Co- Manager of the Kafue Basin Survey, and transferred his interest in wildlife to our Society.
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    The Four Circuit Project, Ngorongoro Conservation Area
    (Fosbrooke, 1994) Fosbrooke, Henry A.
    The Four Circuit Project Improved access to physical and historical features of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, to encourage visits by Tanzanians and by tourists, and so benefit the pastoral Maasai residents. Context The Project covers the whole of the 3,200 square miles of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, from the top of extinct volcanoes 1000 feet above sea level, to the bottom of the rift Valley and Lake Natron at 2500 feet above sea level.-justification Many interesting geological, archaeological, and historical features remain unrecorded through lack of publication and unvisited through lack of roads. This means that, lacking alternative interests, tourists concentrate on the Crater floor, leading to an excess of personnel and transport, detrimental to the environment. This Project is designed to draw them off from the Crater floor, but at the same time to encourage them to pro-long their stay at Ngorongoro. This is of financial benefit to the Maasai, the Prime Minister having ruled that they should benefit from this revenue by 2%. The Project also ensures that tourist traffic will be concen¬trated on defined routes, thus obviating haphazard running over the grazing. This is an urgent problem in the Crater, and likely in future to affect the grazing on the plains. Increased tourism and the Four Circuit Project will also, give employment to the local 'Maasai, of whom too few are currently employed by the Authority or the tourist industry. Objectives To improve services to tourists to Ngorongoro Conservation Area by making the Area's many geological and historical features more available, and so increasing Maasai employment and financial profit from tourism.
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    Sixteenth report of the standing committee on petitions
    (Fosbrooke, 1955) Peachey, R.A.
    1. The Standing Committee on Petitions established by the Trusteeship Council at the 397th nesting, tenth session, and composed of the representatives of Australia, China, TCI Salvador, New Zealand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States of America, examined at its 33rd, 35th and 36th meetings on 2, 7 and 9 July 1952. the following petitions concerning Tanganyika: - Petition from the Representatives of the Wa-Meru Tribe (T/PET.2/99 and Adds. 1-7) - Petition from Mr. Gaaaliell Sablak (T/IET.2/1U3) 2. These petitions had been examined by the Trusteeship Council and an oral hearing granted to the representative of the petitioners at its 431st and 432nd meetings on 30 June 1952. Sir John Lamb participated in the examination as the special representative of the Administering Authority. 3. The Standing Committee submits herewith to the Council its report on these petitions. 4. The Standing Committee draws to the attention of the Council the fact that the petitioners have indicated their wish to send another representative to the Trusteeship Council to make a further oral presentation on the subject matter of the petition. At the time of the Committee's examination of the petitions, Mr. Earle Seaton, the representative of the Wa-Meru tribe, had no information as to when the second representative of the petitioners was to arrive. The Committee therefore decided to complete its examination of the petitions and to refer to the Council any decision regarding the possible postponement of final action on them.
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    People of the valley: the Dani
    (Fosbrooke, 1993) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    The highlands of New Guinea have been inhabited for over 24,000 years, and have evolved some of the most distinctive and long-isolates societies of the world. High in the centre of west Papua, lies the Balim Valley, a wide temperature plain overlooked by 4800 mere high mountains which, though by four degrees south of the equator, bear lacier. The valley is inhabited by Dani, some 183,000 people who only came into sustained contact with the outside world in the 1950s.
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    The peoples of the happy valley (east Africa): The aboriginal races of Kondoa Irangi: Part ii the Kangeju
    (Fosbrooke, 1992) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    The Kangeju, or Kindiga as they are usually called by their neighbours, inhabit a large area surrounding the semi-salt sheet of water shown on the maps of Tanganyika Territory as Lake Eyasi,1 and including portions of the districts of Kondoa Irangi (Mkalama sub-district), Arusha (Mbulu sub-district), and Mwanza. Their country is an inhospitable wilderness, full of game but heavily infested with tsetse fly and very short of drinkable water, and, excepting for some nomad “ Dorobo " to the north of the lake, they have it to themselves. Very little is known of this area. No roads pass through it and, though it affords good shooting, no food is obtainable in it excepting the meat of game. During the rains much of it is almost impassable black mud, and during the dry months, excepting for a few places, such as Jaida swamp, water is not only scarce but dangerous, for many of the springs and drinking- places appear to be impregnated with something which causes a severe and persistent diarrhoea.2 The Kangeju dislike the presence of strangers and are most unwilling guides, but no one else has a knowledge of more than a fringe of their country, so they must be used. They are lazy and prone to desert and, if a large supply of meat becomes available, arc quite capable of hiding until the departure of the traveller allows them to feast in peace upon the carcasses.
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    The peoples of the happy valley (east Africa: The aboriginal races of Kondoa Irangi: Part iii the Sandawi
    (Fosbrooke, 1993) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    Nothing definite can be written concerning the remote history of the Sandawi, and I have already dealt with my personal theory as to their origin. Their tribal traditions state that they came from the north. It would seem that, though they have never extended to the south—probably the Bantu were already there—originally they lived as scat¬tered clans and families over a very much wider area than now, and became concentrated by the converging pressure of Bantu and Hamite. Originally they were hunting nomads. If my theory that they are a remnant of a larger tribe destroyed by the Bantu is correct, possibly they had been forced down the social scale and had lost their cattle and the art of cultivation when driven into the bush. Certainly, as opposed to the Bushman proper, they quickly developed both pastoral and agricultural instincts as soon as circumstances permitted. The Sandawi live in the wide fork formed by the junction of the Bubu and Mponde rivers, which they share, incidentally, with a section of Wanyaturu some 5,000 strong, who for generations have lived with them, accepting the rule of the Sandawi headmen. These Wanyaturu, nearly all of whom speak the Sandawi language in addition to their own Bantu tongue, are rapidly becoming absorbed into the tribe. The Sandawi proper number only about 15,000, and, though it would seem that their numbers are increasing, their large country is by no means thickly populated.
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    Security of land tenure
    (Fosbrooke, 1991) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    Land and its natural endowments have remained through centuries the primary source of livelihood to the overwhelming majority of people on this planet. Among indigenous people, throughout the world, these are the common inalienable collective means of livelihood and the pillar of cultural integrity.
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    The peoples of the happy valley (east Africa): The aboriginal races of Kondoa Irangi part
    (Fosbrooke, 1992) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    The Goroa, and their brethren differ much from all their neighbors, and I find the explanation upon an Ethnological map lent to me by Mr. Hollis. They appear thereon as the only representatives in the Tanganyika Territory, or, indeed, nearer than the distant Gallas, of the Hamitic race. Seven or eight generations ago they lived in the neighbourhood of Lake Nyanza, whence they migrated southwards to their present locations. This migration was the result of their defeat in a long war with their neighbors—then as now—the Tatoga.1 It is interesting to note that tribal traditions admit that the Goroa were the aggressors, as they attacked the Tatoga and stole their cattle. Their final destinations were not reached for several generations, and the migration was attended with considerable hardship. The Erokh appear to have settled first in their present country and to have made a peace with the Tatoga, which has persisted ever since. The Burungi probably started first and went furthest to the south-east, but were driven west again to their present situation by contact with the Masai, who were apparently then moving south. On their way south they left, in what is now Irangi, the Alawa. The Goroa appear to have settled somewhere in or near Turu (Singidda) in a country which they call Ma'angwe.
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    The pastoral network workshops Arusha: Access to appropriate formal education is the key to pastoralists recovery from marginalization.
    (Fosbrooke, 1984) Parkipuny, Moringe L.
    Education is one of the fundamental human rights. Despite the acclaimed nationwide achievement this right has not obtained to Tanzania indigenous minorities. The relevance of indigenous values and knowledge is gaining recognition worldwide. Yet despite being vital that knowledge and education are not per see adequate to meet the needs of these communities in the troubled waters of contemporary life realities, within the boundaries of nation states or the global arena for that matter. Indeed, appropriate education is indispensable to the cultural survival of indigenous peoples and their involvement in the national and global arena, with human dignity. Any attempt at raising quantitative access to schools and colleges will remain only an idealistic aspiration so long as the uniform national education system remains in force. There is a crying need for policy change towards a flexible system, to make possible alternative curricula dovetailed to the specify of the nation's diverse concrete socio-ecological environments. That change is both a basic right of citizens and a prerequisite to effective access of indigenous minority children to formal education. The upsurge towards greater democratization makes advocacy of flexibility, diversity and cultural tolerance practical pursuits with real possibilities for qualitative change. Let us discuss and commit ourselves to participate to facilitate the design and implementation of programs that will enable children and the youth of these marginalized communities to secure democratic access to education opportunities. Primary Education. The Tanzania state has the reputation of a remarkable performance in having attained universal primary education and adult literacy within the first three decades of national sovereignty. In i960 only 25% of school age children were enrolled in primary schools and a bare 10$ of the adult population was literate. UNESCO certified that by 1987 adult literacy in the country a had exceeded 85% and universal primary education had been achieved in all but a few districts. However, it is equally true that this grand achievement was hardly anything but quantitative. In the heydays of the nationwide campaign, carried out in the early 1970s, thousands universal primary schools and adult education classes mushroomed throughout rural Tanzania. The subsequent enormous increase immediately outstripped availability of teachers and education materials. The government launched a crash program to provide improvised training of teachers mass. But output fell far short of the immensely high sudden demand. The idealistic mass education initiative soon lost impetus, as has happened repeatedly to numerous campaigns started in the country in the past three decades. The rigid nationwide uniform education system dictates teaching detached from the very diverse socio-ecological environments obtaining in this country. The status quo preclude flexibility in education and innovations based on the prevailing variety of cultures and actual living conditions of peoples. Primary and secondary school classes are required to have 5 children each. The policy decision to have large classes was intended to 6trike a balance between the genuine need to provide basic education to all school age children and at the same time keeping down costs i.e. in terms of number of classrooms, staff housing and salaries as well as materials. Country-wide these costs can be exceedingly high, relative to actual yearly government budgeted allocation to education.
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    Comments on the NLUPC, Loliondo land use plan
    (Fosbrooke, 1982) Parkipuny, M.L
    Following below is an outline of various shortcoming, inconsistences and incorrect records contained in the 2nd draft report. Generally, the information assembled in the report constitute a very useful data base for future planning of land use in Loliondo. But the report first appears to justify prescribe large scale grain farming contrary to the motive and concern of those who initiated the idea of preparing the plain. Besides the report is grossly deficient, specifically lacking reliable physical data which is a pre-requisite for preparing any detailed land use plan. Such basic information should be gathered before a reputable institution of the caliber of the NLUPC recommends fundamental changes of land vise in area critically vital as Loliondo for various interests.
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    The ecology and behavior of wildlife in the Kalahari
    (Fosbrooke, 1971) Parris, R
    As the theme of this conference is sustained production from semi-arid areas it is only the relevant aspects of the ecology and behavior of wildlife that will be discussed. It should also be stressed that a great del has still to be learned about the wildlife in the Kalahari
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    Case study of a population bottleneck: Lions of the Ngorongoro crater
    (Fosbrooke, 1970) Parker, C.; Pusey, E.A; Rowley, H.; Gilbert, D.A.; Martenson, J.; O’Brien, S.J
    Lions in the Ngorongoro Crater form a small and naturally isolated population. In 1962, the Crater lions suffered an epidemic that reduced the population from 60-75 to 10 individuals. The population rapidly recovered to its former level due to successful reproduction by the surviving females. Seven males immigrated into the Crater in 1964-65, and all subsequent breeding males have been born in the Crater. Most lions in the Crater are descended from four females that survived the epidemic, and there has been considerable exchange of males between prides of common ancestry. The Crater lions show a striking lack of genetic diversity in comparison with the very large and outbred Serengeti population. There are two populations that neighbor the Crater and the Crater lions show a greater genetic affinity to the Serengeti population. Thus genetic data from the Serengeti can be used to provide estimates of the genetic compost ion of the Crater population prior to the 1962 epidemic. Computer simulations suggest that the Crater population may have already been somewhat inbred by 1962; and that the degree of heterozygosity in the breeding population has been declining since the mid- 1970's. A loss of heterozygosity is associated with increased levels of sperm abnormality in lions and there is some evidence that the reproductive performance of the Crater lions is decreasing as a result of decreasing heterozygosity.
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    Payment of labour at Motopi scheme
    (Fosbrooke, 1969) Fosbrooke, Henry A
    It has been proposed that labour be paid 30 cents per day less than half the Government minimum wage of 63 cents per day with the idea that this sub-economic wage be “topped up” from the profit of the running of the scheme. Whilst this idea doubtless arises from the wish to give the workers a sense of participation and involvement in the scheme, this objective cannot be attained unless details are worked out meticulously in advance.
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    A recent west Indian migrants group in Britain
    (Fosbrooke, 1955) Patterson, Sheila
    One afternoon in May 1955, I went down to the south London district of Brixton, to make a reconnaissance for a study of west Indian migrants in British. As I turned off the main shopping street, I was immediately overcome with a sense of strangeness, almost of shock. The street was a fairly typical south London side street, grubby and narrow, lined with cheap cafes, shabby pubs and flashy clothing-shops. All this was normal enough. But what had stuck me so forcibly was that almost all the people in sight were black.
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    Pastoral land tenure in east Africa
    (Fosbrooke, 1988) Fosbrooke, Henry A
    A workshop on pastoral land tenure in east Africa, attended by 28 representatives of pastoral groups, non-governmental organizations working in pastoral areas and others, from Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, was help at the Danish volunteer training center in Arusha, from 1-3 December 1988. The participants are listed in appendix 1. The workshop was funded by ford foundation and organizes by Jeremy swift and Charles Lane from the Institute if Development Studies, University if Sussex, who also edited this report which summarizes the discussions and the conclusion of the workshop.