Masters Dissertations

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    Principles Governing Meaning Discrimination in Kiswahili Monolingual Dictionaries
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Lupenza, E
    Principles Governing Meaning Discrimination in Kiswahili Monolingual Dictionaries Elvila lupenza Master arts (linguistics) University of Dar es salaam, College of Humanities, 2019 This study analyses the principles governing meaning discrimination in Kiswahili monolingual dictionaries since there are some differences in the way they have entered homonymous and polysemous words in KKS and KKK. By using Generative lexicon theory (pustejovsky, 1996) and Cognitive Semantic Approach (Langacker,2008) the study assesses the extended meaning in relation to the principles used in discriminating homonyms and polysems in two Kiswahili monolingual dictionaries i.e Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu(KKS) (TUKI,2013) and Kamusi Kuu ya Kiswahili (KKK) (BAKITA,2015).Data for the present study were obtained through semi-structured interviews and documentary reviews. The sample involved in this study constituted 20 respondents includes 4 lexicographers, 14 undergraduate students and 2 Kiswahili non-native speakers. The data obtained where analysed by using thematic analysis approach where principles of meaning discrimination were described in relation to the meaning given in both KKS and KKK. The findings of this study indicated that discrimination of homonyms and polysems in Kiswahili dictionaries is problematic. Some lexical items are entered as polysems in KKK unlike in KKS which is contributed by an overreliance on some principles of meaning discrimination and ignoring other principles. The improper treatment of the lexical items has added another challenges on assigning etymological information. For example, the same word may be indicated as having English orign in one dictionary while in another dictionary, it is described as having originated from Arabic. Furthermore, the findings show that both KKS and KKK used etymological principle, markedness principle, entral-periphery principle and frequency of usage principle. Word category and noun class criteria were exhaustively observed only in KKS. The findings of this study also indicated that dictionary users are capable of recalling meanings of polysems compared with homonyms. Therefore, findings of this study point to a conclusion that an overreliance and inconsistency of applying the principles of meaning discrimination contribute to the challenge of entering homonyms and polysems in Kiswahili monolingual dictionaries
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    Analysing students’ grammatical errors in English essays from selected secondary Schools in Dar es Salaam
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Mwakasoke, Robert
    The quality study investigated common grammatical errors produced by students in their English essays .The study examined errors in 80 essays .The data were collected from two secondary schools Kitunda and Kinyerezi where students wrote the essay on a given topic “causes of road accident in Tanzania”. Following coder’s is (1967, 1974) model of error analysis errors were identified and classified into various grammatical categories. The five most common grammatical errors were tense and verb forms, pronouns, subject–verb agreement, articles and prepositions, findings revealed that student’ errors result from incompetence with interlingua and intralingua rules on part of the students, and lack of adeptness on the part of teachers. Drawing on the findings, this study is of view that the English language should be given first priority as a language of communication among the students and teachers during school hours because most of the errors committed are attributed to students’ LI. Therefore, this is the evidence that the students’ mastery of English which is the medium of instruction in secondary schools is still poor hence students ineffective in producing error-free essays.
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    Classification of Kibena dialects using Morphosyntactic parameters
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Mgesha, Perida
    This study was about classification of kibena dialects using morphosyntactic parameters. The morphosyntactic parameters involved were noun classes, agreement marking relative marking, tense–aspect and negation. The study was guided by the Bantu Divergence Convergence Theory (B C D) and the cousin versus Distant Cousin Linguistic Hypothesis. The study was undertaken in three regions in Tanzania where native speakers of the language were found Njombe, Ruvuma and Morogoro Regions. The study areas were subdivided into 10 zones marked with letters A –K (excluding 1). Data collection involved 110 informants and was carried out using four instruments reverse transpiration elicitation, review elicitation, focus group discussion and all texts. The findings show that 9 zones with exception of zone K revealed close relationship with one another in: noun classes agreement marking system and relative marking system. It is concluded that firstly, there are two main dialects of Kibena highland Dialect (9 zones) and Lowland Dialect (zone K). The difference emanates from historical and geographical reasons. Secondly, among the remaining 9 zones,8 zones ( A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H ) were progressively converging into one dialect; zone J was on the process to develop into different dialectical whereas zone K had diverged into independent dialect. Thirdly, there was a dialectical continuum through the chain of manual intelligibility across Kibena dialects. Lastly, dialects found in peripheral were more vulnerable to influence by other languages. It is recommended that for comprehensive dialectological studies especially of Bantu languages both linguistic factors are worth to be involved.
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    Assessment of the flow of information on HIV among young people in Arusha Region in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2018) Nahato, Paulina Daniel
    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most presiding public health challenges facing developing countries today. Tanzania continues to be among the nation’s most severely affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This research assessed the flow of information on HIV among young people in Arusha, Tanzania by (a) exploring the determinants of HIV information among young people; (b) examining the sources of HIV information among young people; (c) examining the utilization of HIV prevention methods among young people’ and (d) assessing the level of utilization of health facilities services among young people for HIV prevention. The study employed a mixed methods research design, in which both quantitative and qualitative research approach where used. The findings of this have revealed association between HIV information acquisition and numerous factors (the respondents’ sex and age respondents). The results have also shown that the main source of information on HIV, sexual and reproductive health were teachers. The results have revealed that there is better communication between young people and teachers than between young and parents. The results have also shown that the majority of young people used condoms during their first sexual encounter. For example, the findings revealed that 66 percent of respondents used contraceptive method during their first sex intercourse. The difference of proportion of condom use among age groups was statistically significant (p=0.022). Age and condom use at the last sexual intercourse declined with ageing and vice versa. Moreover, the results of this study revealed minimal utilization; of health facility services among young people. The findings, for example, showed that the majority of young people only visited health facilities for contraceptives or for treatment of STIs. In the light of the result of the results of this research, the researcher recommends a smooth flow of correct information on HIV among young people from multiple sources, including parents/guardians, teachers and other community members. The researcher also recommends appropriate provision of sexual and reproductive health education to young people as well as expanded coverage of young people’s reproductive health service needs in the community.
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    Linguist landscape of public health institution in Tanzania The case of Muhimbili National Hospital
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2018) Mdukula, Paschal Charles
    This is sociolinguistic study pursued to investigate the Linguistic landscap (LL) of a public health institution in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed to accomplish three sociolinguistic concerns--the nature of linguistic landscape of Muhimbili National Hospital MNH) the influence of linguistic landscape on access to information at MH and the coping strategies that are used by hospital clients to access information in the LL at MNH when they fail to understand is written on signboards. Data for this work which included photographs and interview narrative s from LL actors came primarily from MNH in Dar es salaam, Tanzania A total of 225 public signs from various areas of activity at MNH were purposively sampled through observation method and 20 respondents were purposively and conveniently sampled through interview during the field survey. The current study adopted sociolinguistic framework by Backhaus (2005) and spolsky (2009) which substantiates the explorative analysis of public signs by focusing on theoretical constructs like: LL actors, language choice and preference, motive for language function in the LL and the way these constructs influence access to information on the part of the reader(s) in the public space. The study employed a case study design to examine the nature of LL at MNH as a particular case and its influence on access to information. Results show that MHN,s linguistic landscape is predominantly controlled by top-down actors than bottom -up actors in which 96% of public signs analysed were top-down items. In terms of language choice and preference three languages were more visible in the linguistic public space of the hospital -- English, Kiswahili, and Chinese, but English was more visible in both monolingual and bilingual signs showed that most of sign were mainly disseminating information related to health promotion. Administration regulation and responsibilities. Furthermore two coping strategies used by hospital clients when they failed to understand what was written on signboards were identified -- there are asking other fellows at the hospital and using personal experience on the area and its compounds. Results concluded that the LL of the hospital does not guarantee access to information to the majority of hospital clients due to the language patens used on public signs. In order to improve access to information in the LL of the hospital and address linguistic needs of hospital clients, the study recommended adaptation of Kiswahili –English language pattern or bilingual policy in which two languages are used for public signage.
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    Local people’s perceptions and valorization of cultural heritage sites at Chongoleani peninsular, northern coast of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Said, Chiku
    Some African scholars and cultural heritage practitioners perceive and conceptualize heritage based on criteria and variables established in Europe and North America. These criteria include scale, visibility, permanence, centrality and ubiquity. Because many of the scholars were trained in Europe and North American education system, they always skew towards ‘northern thinking’. They consequently fail to understand what really constitutes cultural heritage in the African local contexts. Thus the majority cannot effectively influence informed decision- making at the policy level on the cultural heritage requiring protection in the interests of local communities and the nation at large. Some respective African governments have therefore narrowly conceptualised cultural heritage to mostly mean observable tangible sites such as monuments and/ or protected area, which. Consequently, local people offer little support to protect cultural heritage sites, which are protected by the governments. The current study conducted at Chongoleani Peninsular along the northern coast of Tanzania provides an example of the above existing situation. At Chongoleani Peninsular along the northern coast of Tanzania, there is a Wall Enclosure, which on the 6th of January 1961, was listed in the National Heritage Register of protected cultural heritage resources under the Department of Antiquities. Close to the Wall Enclosure, there is a sacred properties are under two different administrative jurisdictions, thus enabling a comparison on the perception and valorisation of the same. This study examines the level of community’s commitment to offer support in protecting the two sites. The field results reveal that the local people value most and protect the sacred grove than they accord support to the protection of the Wall Enclosure gazetted by the Government of Tanzania as a national monument. As the sacred grove located close to a national monument enjoys full time protection, the local people continue mining stones from the Wall Enclosure to build new houses. This situation calls for reconsideration of protecting larger cultural landscape rather than a Wall Enclosure only.
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    An ethical assessment of Tanzania public leaders’ perspectives and practices on declaration of assets and liabilities
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Kayombo, Jacob
    This research is an ethical assessment of Tanzanian public leaders’ perspectives and practices on the declaration of assets and liabilities. It used not only qualitative and qualitative research methods, but also a mixed research method and design. Focus group discussions, interviews and a set of questionnaires were used to collect data from 30 respondents most of who were selected purposefully and some randomly from employed and retired public leaders working or living in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma regions. The research suggests that Tanzanian public declare their assets and liabilities not because they feel morally obliged to do so, but because they fear that if they don’t do it they will suffer legal consequences that include warning and caution, demotion, suspension, dismissal, resignation or any other disciplinary action related to the office of a public leader. It emphasises that making a declaration of assets and liabilities is not a panacea for unethical practices. This is evident in public service for although public leader have been making declaration of their assets and liabilities every year some of them have been reported to have breached other aspects of leadership ethics. Thus, mere insistence on legal obligation to declare assets and liabilities does not bode well for the moral fibre of public leaders. Nevertheless, to a lesser extent the declaration practice fosters ethical leadership.
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    Kinship relations, Colonialism and Agricultural production among the Kaguru, 1890s-1960
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Majenda, Imani Yaredi
    The study examines the relationship between kinship relations and agricultural production among the Kaguru in the pre-colonial period and the impacts of colonialism on kinship relations and agricultural production. The objectives of the study were first, to examine the relationship that existed in the pre-colonial period between kinship relations and agricultural production. Second, to examine the impacts of colonialism on the Kaguru Kinship relations and, third, to assess, the way agricultural production was affected. The study was conducted in Ukaguru, the area where the Kaguru ethnic group lives and was informed by secondary and primary sources both written and oral sources. Written sources used include books, journal, articles, archival sources and various reports. In terms of oral sources, the study employed interview s as a method of collecting oral information whereby nineteen respondents were interviewed. The study found out that kinship relations among the Kaguru were organized around matrilineal clans. The Kaguru had more than one hundred matrilineal clans which formed a social, political and economic basis. The livelihood of the Kaguru depended chiefly on agricultural production. Availability of land and labour were among the prerequisite for agricultural production among the Kaguru. Kinship was the strongest mobilising force for land allocation and labour mobilisation. The onset of colonialism weakened the power structure of clans which in turn affected the clans’ organisation of agricultural production. The study concluded that despite the effort of colonial governments to modemise social political and economic aspects, their effects on Kinship relations among the Kaguru created a sense of individualism which made it impossible for clans’ allocation of land and mobilisation of labour. Such a change adversely affected agricultural production.
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    Ethical solutions to the challenges of mediation practices in resolving disputes: a case of the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration in Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mjella, Mwantumu Mwaita
    Occasionally, mediation of dispute through alternative dispute resolution methods has been ineffective and hopeless to the parties seeking possible solutions to the dispute. The ineffectiveness had been claimed to be a result of unethical practices among mediators or parties to the dispute which tended to delay the mediation process and narrowed the range of possible solutions to the dispute. This qualitative research used interviews, a questionnaire and documentary review to examine the claims of ethical practices that delay the mediation process at the Commission for Mediation and Arbitration’s (CMA)head offices in Dar es salaam, Tanzania and possible solutions to these practices. The study found out that although it is often hardly possible to note unethical practices among mediators working to resolve disputers through mediation, unethical practices such as intimidating the parties to the dispute, brainwashing of parties involved in the disputes and unwarranted taking of side often go un-noticed. The study recommended that rational mechanisms be established to deal with unnecessary delays of the mediation process. These mechanisms included hiring of right professional people , developing peoples’ understanding on mediation process, putting different controls in place, building a culture of transparency, openness and communication between the CMA and parties to the disputes
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    The total analysis of verbs in Mambwe language of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Edward, Samwel
    The study was confined to tonal analysis of verbs in Mambwe Language of Tanzania. The objective were to investigate total structures in simple infinitive verbs and to examine the tonal behaviours in complex infinitive verbs and. It employed Auto segmental Phonology as theoretical framework in its extended version which is termed Melodic High Assignment due to its descriptive power in handling complex structures like monosyllabic infinitives and maintaining linguistic economy, and simplicity. This approach requires MH to be assigned onto the specific mora. Based on Mambwe infinitives, MH was assigned onto the first syllable of the stem in non-linear function. The study used descriptive design under qualitative approach through which elicitation, interviews. Documentary review, and read aloud tasks were used as data collection methods. In interview, a list of 25 simple and 25 complex infinitives was prepared in Swahili where Mambwe respondents were asked to provide their Mambwe equivalents which were then glossed in English. The findings indicate that in Mambwe simple infinitive verbs, the number of syllable in the stem determines tone pattern. Distinctively, MH is assigned onto the only syllable of the stem then hoped back to infinitive prefix due to non-finality rule that prohibits H from word final in monosyllabic infinitives meanwhile the increase in number of syllables resulted in H spreading rightward. When stems had six to eight syllables, MH of the first syllable of the stem was copied to the penultimate syllable yielding in MH copying rule. When the object maker was inserted, the tonal pattern changed, whereas the object making syllable received MH by H back copying rule from the first and the only syllable of the stem in monosyllabic complex infinitives. It was also showed that the Tone Bearing Units in Mambwe infinitives are both mora and syllable in that the more the syllable the more tone spreads and the pattern changed, and that long vowels are equal to two morae hence it bears two tones. It was further concluded that Mambwe is not purely tonal language but accentual tone in that accent triggers tone due to its tonal predictability nature. The study poses the challenge over the rigorous assertion that most Bantu languages are tonal in that being termed tonal does not imply purely tonal neither does it mean accentual. Therefore, to arrive at some reliable tonologica generalizations and conclusions, it was proposed that more tonological researches based on other word categories, advanced level of tonal analysis like phrase and sentences be carried out on never/less-studied languages like Mambwe. More importantly, that the language is spoken across the countries, it is recommended that comparative studied on the tone phenomena be carried out
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    LI Swahili scaffolding in learning EFL in the Tanzania secondary school classroom
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kamara, Renatus
    The study set out to examine first language (LI) Swahili scaffolding in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the Tanzania secondary school classroom. Specifically, it sought to (i) identify the role of LI Swahili scaffolding in EFL learning in the Tanzanian secondary school classroom, (ii) analyse the outcomes of LI Swahili scaffolding in EFL learning in the Tanzanian secondary school classroom and (iii) determine learners’ perceptions on LI Swahili scaffolding in EFL learning in the Tanzanian secondary school classroom. Also, the study adapted in the sociocultural theory guide it. The study was a qualitative study and it used the case study design since it involves explaining a specific phenomenon in its real-life context to understand it well. It was also conducted at Kagonngo Secondary school in Biharamulo District, Kagera Region. This study employed ten LI Swahili-speaking learners of English from the school. Classroom observation, comprehensibility-writing tasks and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the participants. This study employed Sociocultural Theory to analyse the data. Findings show that the learners use Kiswahili and English to clarify the latter so that they could understand the content covered. The findings also show that the LI enabled the learners to understand the texts. Besides, the learners participated more actively in the learning process when both languages were used than when only English was used. The findings of this study suggest that Tanzania needs to implement the use of both languages, especially to or by beginner and intermediate learners of English.
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    History of tourism and its socio-economic effects on surrounding communities in Kilombero
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Misana, Bagaile Majubu
    This study used Selous Game Reserve (SGR) as a case study to analyse the historical dynamics of the tourism industry in Tanzania. It specifically used Kilombero District in Morogoro Region as the study area with focus on surrounding communities in Mang’ula and Kidatu divisions from 1920s to 2010s. This study explores the history of tourism in the SGR and its socio-economic effects on the surrounding communities. In order to achieve the main objective, the study began by tracing establishment of the SGR, and then proceeded to examine promotion and development of tourism in the area. Finally, it assessed socio-economic effects of tourism in the SGR to the surrounding communities. The study applied qualitative research approach in collection of both primary and secondary data related to tourism in wildlife protected areas especially the SGR. The data were collected from archival sources, reports, books, paper, journal articles, dissertations and newspapers. In addition, the study used oral sources to capture local articulation on development narrative of tourism in the study area. Nevertheless, some quantitative data were used to validate qualitative arguments. The study was guided by Local Agency Theory and the stakeholders Theory on discussion of the role played by partners in the tourist industry, particularly in the SGR during the colonial period. After independence, the post-colonial government focused on promoting national development including rural development. The study found establishment of health and educational institutions in the aforementioned communities as a result of tourism activities at Msolwa administrative zone of the SGR from 2000 to present. The study draws the conclusion that while both the German and British colonial governments saw threat from the surrounding communities to sustainability of the wildlife resources and tourism in the protected areas like the SGR, a shift happened during the early 1960s when the post- colonial government considered the surrounding communities in the expansion and conservation of the protected areas for national development. Over time, especially since the late 1990s to date, the government recognised that the surrounding communities have the agency to contribute to sustainable tourism and the right to benefit from the SGR in terms of community
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    Phonological processes affecting nouns in Oruhaya
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Timotheo, Agbert
    The study examines the phonological processes that affect nouns in oRuhaya. The study specifically aims to identify the assimilatory and non- assimilatory phonological processes affecting oRuhaya nouns and to state the phonological rules that govern the environments in which the phonological processes occur. The phonological processes were analysed by using standard Model of Generative Phonology proposed by Chomsky and Halle. This work’s focus is cantered on presenting the phonological data using two levels of sound representation and starting the rules to how the surface representation is derived from the underlying representation. The study adopts the descriptive design and data were collected through elicitation, targets word list, and semi-structured interview. The key findings of the study indicate that four phonological processes which affect oRuhaya nouns are a result of assimilation. The processes include; glide formation, homorganic nasal assimilation, vowel nasalisation, and palatalization. Also, the study found three non-assimilatory processes which include; epenthesis, syncope, and apocope. The study further identified that sequence of vowels without an intervening consonant in between in most cases is not preferred in oRuhaya nouns and that native speakers rely on glide formation and epenthesis to resolve hiatus. Since this study is restricted to only oRuhaya nouns, recommendations are for further studies to be conducted on other word categories like verbs, adjectives and the alike.
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    Meaning and meaning extension in Kiswahili: a case study of the verb PIGA
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1995) Elmahdi, Idriss Hassan
    It is common to find that in language a word has more than one meaning, one basic and the other ‘extended’ or ‘idiomatic’. In this study, we intensively examine the various meanings associated with the verb PIGA. Inn chapter, one several preliminaries are dealt with including statement of the problem, objectives and significance of the study, hypotheses of the research as well as the research methodology. Chapter two is a review of related literature in which there is also an elaboration of the notions of extended and or extended meanings of the verb PIGA. In chapter three, I present and discuses field as well as documentary data collected for the research. Chapter four examines the nature and range of noun that combine with the verb PIGA to produce idiomatic expressions and meanings associated with this verb. The final chapter is a summary of the findings of the research
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    A socio-linguistic description of and its points of contact with kishambala
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1974) Besha, Mfumbwa Ruth
    A Field work: The field work was done in two trips of three months each, April to June, 1972, and September to November, 1973. The first ono and a half months were a familiarization period, when I visited people, talked to thon informally, and Explained the purpose of my study. In this way I managed to get friends who invited me to their homes and introduced me to other friends. During this time, I was able to collect the oral history and observe the social relationships in the community. I also made a beginning at Learning the language, and got introduction to both Kimaa and Kimbughu. I avoided using the tape-recorder or carrying my writing pad around, as that would have put off my informants. During the following one and a half months of the first trip, I started using the tape recorder by taping any conversation, net necessarily in Kimaa, and thon playing it back to the informants. This type of fi feed-back t' proved to be very helpful in familiarising thorn with- the machine and they later freely talked in Kinaa while the tape recorder uses running. It was always important to play bock the tape, so as to prove to thorn that the machine 't took only these words or things Which they said and intended to be heard. After the initial suspicion of the purpose of my trip was over, and my informants got used to the tape recorder, it was easy far mo to use my writing pad to record words and sentences Which I then road aloud, studied at home, and repeated to my t teacher’s t the next day. The second trip was more interesting because I know just where to and wham to contact. This time, I was fortunate the got an informant on Kimaa who knew how to road and urito. This young man was very patient and understanding, and ho did nut only help me to improve my knowledge of Kimaa, he also helped me to transcribe a lot of the material which I had collected earlier. Learning Kimaa was by no means easy. I had no problem with Kimbughu because of my knowledge of Kishambala; although I could not speak it, it was easy to understand. Kirnaa took much longer to learn and I never managed to have more than a working knowledge of the language. That is, I was able to understand much of what was being said, but I never mastered the pronunciation to the point of conversing freely. On the other hand, after the first once and a half month, I at least knew where to mark the morpheme boundaries, which proved very important in writing down sentences spoken in informal conversations. The material collected on Kimaa is of two main types (i) Much of it was tape recorded in informal gatherings. After the first one and a half months, my informants ignored my presence and talked in Kimaa whenever I was around without being reminded to do so. In this way I was able to keep the tape recorder running while at the same time listening to the "switches” in their speech, from Kimaa to Kimbughu to kighambala. (i i) The root of the material was written down. I wrote down words and sentences in Kishambale and thon asked for the equivalents in Kimaa and Kimbughu. The material on the history of the Wamaa and their relationship with the Washambala was mostly done orally. Some of it was tape recorded. But most of the time I relied cn taking down notes, and asking a question here and another there from different people, among both the Jamaa and the Washambala. B. The Chief Informants: It is obvious that in research work of the nature described above, informants play a very major role. So it is just appropriate that I should devote a While section to my chief informants and helpers, and the role each, individually or in groups, played.
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    Dual language instruction in Tanzania: the Case of Civics in Public Primary Schools
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2010) Mihayo, Maziku
    This study was undertaken to determine the use of Dual Language Instruction (DLI) in primary schools. The study was guided by three objectives which include determining whether the language of instruction influences pupils' performance in Civics; evaluating the effectiveness of dual language instruction in Civics; and determining the implication of DLI on the Education Policy. The major data collection methods used in the study include quasi-experiment, questionnaires, classroom observation and documentary review. The findings from the study indicate that there is a relationship between dual language instruction and pupils ‘performance in Civics. This is because pupils who were taught in both English and Kiswahili showed an improvement in their performance as opposed to those who were taught in Kiswahili or English as an only medium. Additionally, the findings indicate that both pupils and teachers are positive about DLI since the practice enhances comprehension of the curriculum content. Although the DLI is an unofficial practice, classroom evidence reveals that English medium schools commonly use it. Therefore the study recommends that, (1) the debate on either English or Kiswahili being the best medium of instruction should allow room for both languages to coexist harmoniously in the classroom, (2) Code switching, a characteristic of DLI, should be embraced as a tool for learning enhancement and recognized as a pedagogical tool, (3) additive bilingualism can be a possible solution towards overcoming the Tanzanian linguistic dilemma instead of clinging to either Kiswahili or English; and (4) a research should be conducted in Kiswahili medium schools to investigate whether or not the form of Code switching that exists constitutes DLI.
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    Ubwinga bwa kwingishaa bemba musical and cultural tradition inmalole, zambia
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Justin, Musonda
    This study was undertaken basin on the objective of identifying songs which are sung at the ubwinga bwa kwingisha, examining the indigenous musical and indigenous social cultural characteristics which determine the ubwinga bwa kwingisha tradition. An ethnographic research design was applied where data was collected from the people of Malole: Chundu,Kabamba, Mulala, and Fele villages using interviews, observation, Participant – observation and video documentation. More than fifty songs were determined to be performed at the Ukwingisha Whose indigenous social Cultural characteristics were identified and analyzed. Generally this study reveals that in the unique text of the songs, and the practices in the musical and the social cultural characteristics of the Ukwingisha ceremony, is embedded a very power full refresher of the marriage practices of the Bemba, besides the honor that this ceremony bestows. Findings reveal that this ceremony is performed for both sons and daughters – in – law in the presence of their spouses, and that the manner in in which the initiate is regarded by the in laws (good or bad person) is reflected in the songs which they use during the ceremony. A good initiate is praised while a bad one is scolded. This is the ceremony whose outcomes account for improved family unity and lived hood among married people who undergo it. Therefore this calls for illusion of some aspects of the ,Ukwingisha ceremony in Zambian curriculum of study
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    Assessment of opportunities for pertinet management and conservation of Mumba rock-shelter, northern Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mjandwa, Albert Samwel
    The main objective of the study was to assess the opportunities for pertinent management and conservation of Mumba rock-shelter, located in Lake Eyasi Basin, Northern Tanzania. Specifically, it identified the socio-cultural significance of Mumba rock-shelter and its surrounding landscape, identified possible management and conservation challenges facing Mumba rock-shelter and identified management and conservation strategies of the site. The study employed a qualitative research design and used both secondary and primary data; both in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect primary data. A total of 100 respondents from Mang'ola and Barai wards were included in the study. The findings reveal that the majority of community members consider Mumba rock-shelter as a potential setting for ritual and religious practices. Rituals performed at Mumba include rain-making, initiation and traditional healing. These rituals are still enacted at the site today but are often disturbed by researchers and visitors who regularly visit the site. Performance of rituals has been a part of the local culture and they have been passed on from generation to generation among the Wada toga of Laghangarer and Malekchand villages as well as other neighboring communities. In this study a number of management and conservation challenges were identified. These challenges occur as a result of anthropogenic and natural actions. The study recommends several measures to deal with identified challenges and calls upon all stakeholders including custodians and users from different levels and institutions to jointly come together and take part in planning and management as well as participate fully in conservation activities. It is recommended from the results of this study that community participation should be encouraged in order to blend the past and present cultural practices. This approach conveys the importance of cultural heritage resources and allows the community to understand the necessity to conserve heritage resources.
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    Ethnobotany at Oldupai gorge; ecological analogues and archaeological visibility
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Fella, Kelvin Stanslaus
    This study presents the role of the understudied traditional plant use of the Maasai communities living around Oldupai Gorge, as a tool to reconstruct human-plants interaction since the Pleistocene times. The major objective was to highlight the importance of ethno botany in the reconstruction of Oldupai Gorge's paleoecology. Interviews and plant collection methods were employed to describe the Maasai ethno botanical landscape. Also, five ecological analogues were suggested by comparing palaeovegetation records throughout Oldupai stratigraphic sequences with the present-day ecosystems. The aim was to match palaeohabitats which were available to the hominins in the Pleistocene with the modern-day habitats occupied by the Maasai. The proposed local habitats were systematically sampled and analyzed with the help of a botanist. The results show that the Oldupai Maasai have great ecological knowledge on their environments and they make use of about 152 species. The plant materials are used for many purposes including food, medicine, construction, firewood, fire sticks, tools, weapons, tope/psychoactive, ritual, and personal hygiene and beauty. Based on botanical records, the results show the presence of palaeohabitats at Oldupai Gorge which correspond with modern ecosystems such as Open grassland, saline grassland habitat, wooded grassland, Afromontane and riparian forests, and Acacia woodland. The study suggests that most of the species used by Maasai today at Oldupai Gorge were also available in the Pleistocene, and due to the mosaic nature of the landscape, hominins would have exploited a variety of plant resources from various habitats within short distances. It is likely that the hominins were using some of these plants in the same way like the Maasai are using today. The study recommends more ethno botanical studies at Oldupai Gorge as tools of archaeological interpretations, and the analogous studies which base on palaeobotanical records rather than relying on palaeogeographical and hydrogeological contexts only.
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    Study of Adaptation of Arabic Loanwords In Swahili
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2010) Mohamed, Musa
    This study addresses the issue of adaptation of Arabic loanwords in Swahili. The study endeavor’s to investigate how the Swahili language has adapted Arabic loanwords, phonologically and morphologically. Apart from the Arabic loanword adaptation, the study also examines the amount of Arabic loanwords found in Kamusi ya Kiswahili sanifu (TUKI2004) the meanings that they brought with them and their usage this study two major approaches were used; Comprehensive Theory of lexicography as propounded by Herbert Ernest Wiegand (1977) and the Theory of Constraints and Repair Strategies as propounded by paradis and charite (1997).The results show that in the Kamusi ya Kiswahili sanifu (KKS TUKI 2004), the total number of Arabic loanword’s is 2,790 out of 14,439 which is only 19% of all headwords in KKS , in addition to that, the results also show that there are some phonological, morphological and semantic changes that took place during the adaptation of Arabic loanwords into Swahili. These change show that some loanwords have been adapted fully and other partially. Partial adaptation has resulted in bringing into Swahili foreign phonological structures. Regarding the usage status of Arabic loanwords by Swahili speakers, the results show that some Arabic loanwords in KKS are either used frequently, rarely used or are note in use at all.