Masters Dissertations

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    The influence of Total Quality Management (TQM) on the organizational performance of food and beverage firms in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-10) Kutizibwa, Christopher Lyogello
    The study aimed to determine the influence of Total Quality Management (TQM) on the organizational performance of food and beverage firms in Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined the extent to which employee training, customer satisfaction, and top management commitment influenced the organizational performance of food and beverage firms. The study adopted stratified random sampling where 200 respondents formed a sample size. The study collected the data by using questionnaires and used and descriptive statistics, linear regression and correlation techniques for analysis. The study found a positive influence of Total Quality Management (TQM) practices; employee training, customer satisfaction, and top management commitment on performance of food and beverage firms. The study recommends that firms continue to increase their employees’ empowerment and participation, pay more attention to customers by providing the best quality services and providing value-added services for customer satisfaction. In addition, firms should enhance top management commitment to quality management to enhance organizational performance. They should continue their effort to consider total quality management as a priority for their company in the future and involve the company in TQM implementation at all levels.
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    Assessingthe influence of manufacturing sector performance on economic performance in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-10) Kea, Arrip Mathew
    This study assessed the influence of manufacturing sector performance on economic performance in Tanzania. The research used annual data from 2000-2019. Both descriptive and vector autoregressive approaches were used to evaluate the secondary data obtained. Frequency tables were used in the descriptive techniques and the regression techniques included the stationary Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) evaluation, the Johansen Co-integration Test and the Error Correction Model (ECM). In addition, the study also used the Granger causality test to determine the direction of causality among the model variables. The results of ADF show that the variables are not stationary at their individual levels, but are stationary at their first difference. The findings of the Johansen co-integration show that there is a long-term relationship between the manufacturing productivity indicators (manufacturing exports, manufacturing value added and production volume) and the economic performance indicators (gross domestic product and employment). On the other hand, the results of the VECM show that the manufacturing productivity indicators (manufacturing value added, manufacturing exports and production volume) have a long-term but insignificant impact on Tanzania’s gross domestic product. More so, the findings show that manufacturing value added has a long-term negative and statistically significant impact on employment (Economic Performance Proxy) while manufacturing exports and production volume have long-term statistically insignificant efficiencies. In conclusion, Tanzania has made considerable progress in the reconstruction of infrastructure and the implementation of supporting policies to stimulate the manufacturing sector, provided that the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector is seen as a critical necessity for economic growth as it generates productive economic growth. However, in order to achieve a sustainable economic growth, the study recommends the need to strengthen the institutional, legal and fiscal climate of the manufacturing sector in order to improve the competitiveness of the sector.
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    Factors Influencing Crop Trading Financing among Commercial Banks in Tanzania: the case of five selected Commercial Banks.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Sukums, G. F
    Factors Influencing Crop Trading Financing among Commercial Banks in Tanzania: the case of five selected Commercial Banks. Gabriela Firmin Sukums Master of Business Administration (Finance) University of Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es salaam Business School, 2020 This study focused on assessing factors influencing crop trading financing among commercial banks in Tanzania. The study was guided by three study hypotheses including assurance on return to investment, perceived risk and transparency which were tested on banking sector development. The study was performed using explanatory design whereas information gathering was performed through relationship testing between variables of the study. The study findings were obtained through five selected commercial banks from the sample size of 50 respondents by means of structured questionnaires. The collected data was processed using SPSS datasheet where statistics relevant to present primary data were generated through the program after filling the data. Descriptive statistics first described the characteristics of respondents; whereas the relationship between study variables was done through correlation and multiple regressions. Findings of the study revealed that the three study predicting variables which are assurance on return to investment, perceived risk and transparency are all positive with significant outcome statistically on banking sector development as the dependent variable whereas p<0.05. This implies that banking sector development in Tanzania through crop trading financing is facilitated by assurance on return to investment, perceived risk and transparency. The study recommended that crop trading financing though it is effective and sufficient business among commercial banks to finance still must be also well assessed before the actual decision is undertaken since once policy changes situations change automatically and quick which may affect completely the business with no possibility to recover the costs. The study was conducted through quantitative approach whereas another study may be conducted using qualitative approach.
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    The influence of management practices on occupation health and safety in the tanzania’s small scale mining firms
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Nkolimwa, D
    The influence of management practices on occupation health and safety in the tanzania’s small scale mining firms Dominic Nkolimwa Phd (Business Administration) University of Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es salaam Business School, 2020 This study examines how management practices can influence the implementation of occupation health and safety at the workplace in the Tanzania’s small scale mining firms by considering the mediating effects of perceived compliance cost. The thrust of the study were to: analyse the influence of employee’s involvement in occupational health and safety at workplace; establish the influence of safety training on occupational health and safety workplace; delineate the influence of employees’ communication on occupational health and safety at the workplace and assess the mediating effect of perceived compliance costs on the relationship between management practices and occupational health as well as safety at the workplace. It sequentially deployed quantitative and qualitative approaches. The small scale mining employees operating in Tanzania were the population of this study. The unity of inquiry was small scale mining employees. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse data gathered from 297 small scale mining firms’ employees. They study tested the models and verified all hypotheses on direct and indirect effect of management practices on occupational health and safety at workplace. Also 18 interviewees were interviwed to provide the incorporated qualitative findings. Using the ERG Theory, the results demonstrate that safety training (ST) and Employees’ Communication (EC) have positive influence on the implementation of Organization of Safety Support (OSS) and Proactive Hazard Control (PHC) which are shown by the implementation of health and safety at workplace. In relation to the contingency. Theory, the findings further revealed that perceived compliance cost full mediated the relationship between EC and the implementation of OSS and PHC at the workplace. It was also found out that the perceived compliance cost full mediated the relationship between ST programmes and the implementation of OSS and PHC at the workplace. These results imply that safety training and employees’ communication should be enhanced by managers so as to improve the implementation of the health and safety at workplace.
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    Influencing factors on consumer buying behavior through Online Shopping retailing: a case study of Dar es salaam City in Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kway, Dativa Evord
    Influencing factors on consumer buying behavior through Online Shopping retailing: a case study of Dar es salaam City in Tanzania. Dativa Evord Kway Master of Business Administration, University of Dar es salaam, University of Dar es salaam Business School 2020 This study examined factors that influence consumer behavior while purchasing online in Tanzania. This study specifically focused on assessing the influence of security assurances, delivery process and on online payment methods on consumer buying behavior in the retailing sector. The study which is basically descriptive, adopted primarily, quantitative, but was complemented by qualitative approaches. The study used non-probabilistic sampling methods where a total of 107 respondents who use internet were conveniently sampled to participate in the study. Moreover, three key informants were purposively selected to provide in depth information of the study area. These were Telecommunication Company, online shopping providers and internet provider representatives who were considered to be greatly informed to provide needed information. Quantitative analysis of the data was performed by using multiple regression and correlation models with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 25) software. The results of the study showed that two constructs, namely security assurance and delivery process had positive and significant contribution to online payment methods had positive, but insignificant influence on online consumer buying decisions.The study recommends that for online purchasing in Tanzania to achieve better it should improve the monitoring of security to its service. Moreover retailers are recommended to initiate different convenient steps in order to improve online payment performance. The study has also provided, guidance to the government on formulating effective policy that will protect both customers and business owners engaged in online retailing business.
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    Impact of information and communication technology usage towards the growth of tourism sector in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Mohammed, Salima
    This Study aimed at analyzing the impact of ICT usage towards the growth of Tourism Sector in Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the impact of ICT towards the growth of Tourism sectors in terms of Accounting Profit, Labour, productivity and Marketing performance. In this study a total of two hundred (200 ) staff/ employees were selected from twenty (20) tourism companies from Dar es salaam and Arusha, questionnaires were distributed to ten (10) employees in each tourism company selected and out of that five were key informants. A part from using primary methods the study also employed Secondary methods in collection of data .Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the findings using frequency and percentages and ordered/ ordinal logistic regression model was also used to present the findings. From the findings the study found that out of the three dependent variables (Accounting Profit labor productivity and marketing performance) only two (Marketing performance and labor productivity) are influenced by the independent variable which is ICT usage .The findings showed that accounting profit is not influenced by ICT usage but rather by other factors. The study recommends that tourism organizations should ensure that information and communication. Technology is effectively used throughout their daily operations. The study has also recommended to the organization that the use of ICT for international business actions can remarkably reduce firm’s costs and thus strengthen the firms’ internal resource-base for its international operations. The study provided recommendations to the regulatory authorities and policy makers concerning internationalization of the Tourism. The study discussed the importance of having suitable rules that will enable Tourism in international business. The study has recommended that regulations on the taxes that are being charged to the tourism should be evaluated as most of the business owners complained on the higher costs that are associated with taxes. The government should review and update on the policies and regulations patterning to the taxes that are being charged to the Tourism. This study covered the role of information and communication technology in facilitating the growth of tourism in Tanzania the study used Dar es Salaam and Arusha regions. Also the study concentrated in only three variables
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    The role of tourism development on economic, social –cultural and environmental Conservation in Zanzibar
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Maceci, Nuru, Christopher
    This study assessed the role tourism development on economic, social cultural and environmental conservation in Zanzibar. The main objective of this study was to examine the contribution of tourism development on economic social - cultural protection and environmental conservation in Zanzibar. The specific objectives were to find out the contribution of tourism development on economic growth of the local people, to examine the role of tourism development on socio-cultural protection and to evaluate the influence of tourism development on environmental conservation. The three variables of economic growth socio-cultural protection and environmental conservation was constructed from the Social exchange theory. The study used quantitative research approaches. A total sample of 200 respondents was involved at Zanzibar area. The primary data were collected using likert scale questionnaire for quantitative data analysis was made using SPSS version 16 and was arranged according to the themes as they emerged which formed the basis for discussion. The results of this study found that there are a number of barriers which hinder local community participation in tourism development. Such barriers include; include lack of financial resources, poor involvement of local community in decision making and lack of local community empowerment by the government. The study concluded that in order to attain sustainable tourism development to Zanzibar then should make sure that there is involvement of local community in decision making plan, social cultural protection and environmental conservation activities. Also the local community must be empowered social and economically so as to be able to engage in tourism activities.
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    Factors influencing consumer continual purchase intention of beverage products in Tanzania A Case of Dar es Salaam
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Marius, Raina
    The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing continual purchase intention of beverage products in Tanzania specifically in Dar es Salaam region. The influence of four variables namely perceived quality, social status price and attitude toward beverage brands on customer purchase intention of beverage product was tested. The data for this study was collected from 150 respondents by using structured questionnaires which were administered in Dar es Salaam city. Analysis of Variance, correlation and multiple regression analysis methods were used to identify the relationship between continual purchase intention and perceived quality, social status, price and attitude toward beverage brands. The study found that among the four variables, only attitude and perceived quality were statistically significant predictors of consumer purchase intention. The study recommends that marketers should keep pace on increasing consumer positive attitude formation towards their brands through increasing marketing activities. Additionally beverage producers should work on their products’ quality improvement mainly through the raw materials and ingredients they use Government’s policy should be able to create conducive environment to such investors so that to enable them engage in more markets found outside the country.
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    Investigation of power dissipation in data selective flips flops triggered by octree clocking technique for low power buffer design
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Singh, Ngangbam Phalguni
    In the past few decades, studies have demonstrated that power dissipation is one of the key challenges in information and communication technology (ICT) devices. The main factors are memory storage elements, the log elements and the clocking technique. It leads to heating effect on the devices after prolonged usage. In such an application flip flop with proper clocking system can be used to design low power buffer, which can reduce the power dissipation. This thesis presents a quantitative research investigating the power dissipation in various data selective flip flops. A ring counter, with octree clocking system and combinational elements (C-Elements), is developed to control the clock signals triggering the flip flops and avoid unwanted switching activities during redundant events. Buffers are accessed in the form of ring counters, which control data transfer between chips in the computer internal circuits. The viability of the design is verified by the simulation using very High-Speed Hardware Description language (VHDL) programs with Altera’s Quartus II and Xilinx’s ISE. Analog current and transient analyses are done using Multisim 8 tools. Simulation results show that the deployed technique reduction on power dissipation by 44.08% and 14.20% with respect to fixed body biased and static random access memory (SRAM) respectively. Simulation results also show that the designed buffer dissipates 1.655 nW in 2 stage and 0.666 mW in 64 bit delay buffer using octree clocking techniques with DDFF is 14.72%.
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    The role of human resources information system (HRIS) on the management performance in Public sector
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Peter, Nancy
    The study focused on the role of human resources information system (HRIS) on the management performance in public sector in Tanzania with specific case of Kinondoni Municipality. The study was guided by three major hypotheses as predicting study variables which are HRIS usage affecting compensation and benefits. HRIS affect human resources planning and analysis; and HRIS affect recruitment and selection on management performance in public organization. The methodology employed was positivism and supported by cases studies approach. Primary and secondary data were both used. The analysis was done using SPSS program to perform inferential tests to generate data and analysis to fill the study gap. Frequency tables and percentages were used to disseminate data and findings on demographic information of the respondents in connection with the study; correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to show the relationship between the study variables as predictors and or hypotheses on the dependent variables. Findings of the study showed that independent variable through HR functions are positive and statistically significant on management performance. Therefore to conclude that usage of HRIS has significant role on management performance in public organisations. The study for the matter recommends that despite the relevance of the variables as they are positive; the system in place is Lawson which is centrally controlled by local government authorities (LGAs) creating how access to it: The system should be the decentralize to facilitate more access and training to sharpen the skills of the users due to the findings that higher traning for employees is feasible and necessary. Also to cut across all the HR functions in use for full utilization of resources hence good Management performance. The revenue for further studies shows that it is high time for the local government authorities to put in place the system which is compatible and accessible by all concerned on the use to avoid unwanted and unexpected faults including the presence of ghost workers as a result inconsistent information.
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    Factors influence sustainable consumption: Case study on refillable bottles
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Swai, Elisifa
    The study assessed factors that influence on sustainable consumption a case of refillable bottles .The study had the following specific objectives to examine influence of social norms on sustainable consumption and of a product to examine impacts of convenience of a product on sustainable consumption and to examine influence of sustainable consumption of a product .Data for the study were collected from 150 respondents in Dar es salaam in selecting respondents simple random sampling technique was used .Data for the study were collected through questionnaires with five –point Likert scale. Results from the study were processed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and summarised in tables. Multiple regression was also used in data analysis At 95 percent confidence interval, finding s from the study disclosed that majority of respondents agreed that social norms convenience and sustainable perception have a positive influence and were significant in explaining their relationship with sustainable consumption. The study recommends that knowledge should be provided to community on usefulness of sustainable consumption of product so as to eliminate negative environmental impacts for future penetrations .In addition there should b be production of goods or products that do not cause negative effects on the environment so as not to affect health of existing population a large.
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    Salient attributes of effective corporate social responsibility practices in the telecommunication sector in Tanzania: the case of Vodacom Headquarter
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Rwijage, Jessica
    The study assessed the salient attributes of effective corporate social responsibility (CRS) practices in the telecommunication sector in Tanzania. Vodacom Tanzania being a case study. The study was guided by three study hypotheses as predicting variables to effectiveness in CSR in assuring knowledge generation. The hypotheses were philanthropy activities, business practices and product related activities. The study used explanatory study design whereas knowledge gap filling was performed using causal relationship approach. Data were collected from Vodacom Tanzania Company Limited as case using questionnaires from the employees of the respective selected business entities in Tanzania. The collected data were assembled and computed in SPSS data sheet for analytical measurements generated from the program whereas first descriptive statistics, specifically percentages and frequency tables were generated to show the overview of the employees in the organization and the industry as a whole. Despite that, correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to show the relationship between study variables. The findings showed that all three study hypotheses as independent variables namely philanthropy activities, business practice and product related activities have positive and are statistically significant on the effectiveness in corporate social responsibility (CSR) as the dependent variable. This entails the fact that the effectiveness in corporate social responsibility (CSR) in telecommunication companies in Tanzania is influenced by philanthropy activities business practice and product related activities
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    Drivers of customer’s perception on Islamic banking in Tanzania: a case of National Bank of Commerce (NBC)
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mkate, Nyaso ally
    The aim of the study was to explore the drivers of customer’s perception on Islamic banking in Tanzania. Data was collected through interviews involving National Bank of Commerce customers in Dar es Salaam who were not Islamic banking users. A total of 23 customers were interviewed and content analysis was employed to analyse data. The study findings revealed that customer’s knowledge drives perception of Islamic banking. Even though customers are aware of Islamic banking existence but they don’t have knowledge on product package, unable to describe the products, unaware of costs associated as well as they are unfamiliar with Islamic banking terms and conditions. Furthermore, society around customers does not support customers to use Islamic banking as they are not knowledgeable about the products. This drives customer’s perception on Islamic banking as customers’ values advice from the society, share bank information with the society they are living seeking for their approval. The study revealed that majority of the respondent was not ready to recommend Islamic banking to others as they don’t understand Islamic banking in details. Service providers drive customer’s perception of Islamic banking as providers themselves do not motivate customers to use Islamic banking product, they provide poor customer service, inadequate advertisement and limited availability especially in rural areas. It is recommended that customers knowledge and society in general to be increased using appropriate advertisement channels. Service providers need to improve quality of service offered, increase product availability and motivate customers to use Islamic banking.
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    Factors influencing the administration of value added tax in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Pardede., Niels
    This study aimed at to examining the economic factors affecting the administration of value-added tax in Tanzania. The study specifically aimed to examine the influence of VAT regulation and laws. VAT invoicing. VAT refund and VAT filing on the administration of value-added tax. Other factors included manpower, taxpayer identification, taxpayer assessment, taxpayer sensitization and corruption and embezzlements, the registration threshold and VAT exemptions. The study used explanatory research design. The data was collected from taxpayers in Dar es Salaam region. The data analysis was conducted to show the relationship between variables. The regression results show that VAT invoicing, VAT filing and VAT regulation significantly influence VAT administration. Furthermore, the results have shown that VAT refunds as the predictor have no significant influence on VAT administration. In addition, measures of fighting corruption and embezzlement are positively significantly related to VAT revenue performance. The study recommends that improvement should be done on VAT filing in order to increase the revenue performance of VAT. Furthermore, VAT law and Regulations including the government policies should be improved and this will definitely result in effective, efficient and economical revenue performance of VAT in Tanzania. It should employ adequate manpower to be able to meet the challenges related to VAT invoicing. TRA should keep the record and improve the process of VAT refund so that can be more attractive to taxpayers and improve tax collection. Researcher need to study further the administrative bottle needs in TRA another research could be an assessment of the weaknesses in the laws in Tanzania.
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    Product packaging and consumer goods buying decision
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mwita, Ebenezer George
    Considering most consumer purchasing decisions are made at the point the sale thus under this circumstances one of the most distinguishing factor that can act decisive is the product with the most appealing package. The study therefore had a main objective of determining the influence of product packaging on customer goods buying decision in Tanzania. The study emphasized on how three packaging elements of material, labelling and design can influence the consumer in making purchasing decision. The study the survey strategy where structured questionnaires were administered to a sample of 95 respondents determined through simple random sampling. In order to obtain a more diverse population, the study was conducted within the vicinity of Dar es salaam region where most supermarkets are located. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS where descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the relationship between the predictor variable and dependent variable. The findings established that a significant relationship exists between package labelling, design & material and consumer goods buying decision. However, it is established that product package does not influence repeat purchases decision as other factors such as service quality are considered by customers. Considering environmental conservation and sustainable economic growth are one of the trending issues in the global business arena, the study therefore recommends that policy makers should increase awareness programs so as to ensure consumes consider eco-friendly packages and eco-labelling in making purchase decision
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    Export diversification strategy and its influence on the economic growth in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Assenga, Francisca Phillipo
    This study scrutinized export diversification strategy and the influence it exerts to the growth of the economy in Tanzania from the year 1995 to 2017. The study was specifically guided by five specific objectives which measured the extent to which the composition of exports, diversification index, real effective exchange rate, capital formation and employment formation affect the development and Tanzania economic growth. The study employed a descriptive research and used secondary time series data for 23 years from 1995 to 2017. Secondary data were collected from World Development Indicators of the World Bank and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Data analysis was done by using Stata package, from which the study conducted stationarity test, data transformation, Error Correction Model (ECM) estimation and used the ARDL model to analyze the empirical results. The findings of the study indicated that capital expenditure and diversification index had a positive significant influence on economic growth in Tanzania, while export composition and real effective exchange rate on export diversification had negative influence on the economic growth in Tanzania. The findings of the study further indicated that employment rate was not a significant variable in measuring export diversification influence, in growing Tanzania’s economy. This study recommends the government of Tanzania in the form of policy implication to increase prominence on investing in the export sector, specifically the manufacturing export sector, so as to attract the increase of foreign investments. The government may look into the possibility of increasing manufactured exports by attracting high technology investment in the manufacturing sector, while addressing restraints as well as putting in place trade policies which are proactive, dynamic, flexible and differentiated between sectors and between the various segments of a given sector in order to enable diversification to take place
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    The role of promotion mix on tourists’ hotels performance in Tanzania : evidence from Dar es salaam City based Tourists Hotels.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Sanga, Simith Joshua
    The study examined the role of promotion mix components on tourists’ hotels performance in Tanzania using Dar es salaam City as a case study. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the extent to which advertising efforts, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relation and personal selling relate to tourists’ hotels performance. The study was guided by three theories namely, hierarchy of effect theory, Relationship marketing theory and Behavioral learning theory. Data were collected randomly from 80 managers/ owners from tourists’ hotels through structured questionnaires. Moreover, 3 key informants were contacted for indepth interview using purposive sampling technique. Data were analysed using SPSS (21) where descriptive as well as correlation and regression were conducted. The findings shows that four constructs namely advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and public relation had positive and significant influence on tourists hotels performance. The other fifth variable namely personal selling had positive, but insignificant influence on tourists’ hotels performance. The study recommends for the tourists hotels management to work out for the four most effective promotion mix components namely advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and public relation because they are the most influencing factors to the tourist hotels performance, more emphasis should be placed on posters, print media, and radio which appear to be the most influencing attributes for advertising. Moreover, emphasis on coupons, discounts and contests should be placed for sales promotion. Furthermore, emphasis should be put on internet, telephone and telemarketing for direct marketing and lastly emphasis be placed on social media, business events and press release for public relation.
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    Health care inequality in the context of neoliberalism: The case of Amana Regional Referral Hospital, Ilala Municipality
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Kitunda, Nassoro Rajabu
    This study explains the social forces, processes and social relations which are responsible for health care inequality in the context of neoliberalism. Commodification processes identified as a social force/relations which are responsible for health care inequality. The study had mainly two specific objectives: First, to describe the forms of health care inequality focusing on Amana Regional Referral Hospital and second to examine the processes of commodification in health care in reproducing health care inequality. The study is guided by two theoretical frameworks, one being that the contradiction between a use-value and exchange- value in health care, continue to play havoc on the health conditions of the people. Since exchange-value dominates use-value, the realization of use-value is predicated on the ability of patient to pay for hospital bills. Second is the concept of structural violence which continues to explain health care inequality by looking at commodification of health care as a form of violence which harms people and justifies this violence, because it continues to produce and reproduce health care inequality in a society. For the purpose of fulfilling the objectives of the study, qualitative method such as In-depth interview, Focus group discussions, observation, and reviewing the documents were used. The findings of the study revealed that, there are four (4) forms of health care inequality in Amana regional referral hospital. These forms include as follows: Inequality within the physician's domain of consultation (doctor and specialist), inequality in types of wards to be admitted, Inequality in the mechanisms of receiving health care services and inequality within and between health insurance schemes. Further the study noted that: These forms of health care inequality are a product of commodification which manifested through money, beyond the use-value, market, and continuation of user fees in health facilities. The study concludes that, the forms of health care inequality which are observed in Amana regional referral hospital are a product of the neoliberal economic system under the operation of commodification of health care. The study recommends that, it's important to address the consequences of commodification in health care in order to solve the problem of inequality in the health care system.
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    Determinants of urban youth unemployment in Tanzania: evidence from integrated labour force survey
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Kigahe, Orestas Stephen
    This study intended to determine the factors that influence urban youth unemployment in Tanzania using 2014 ILFS data. The sample involved 13,371 urban youths aged from 15 to 35 who were obtained after dropping all the participants from the rural areas as well as those who were below 15 years and above 35 years in the urban areas. The data were analyzed using Stata version14 software. The relationship between urban youth unemployment and socio-demographic variables were established by performing Pearson's Chi-Square Test. The study showed that urban youth unemployment is related to sex, educational level, household size, marital status, migration status, disability status and regional zones. Factors influencing urban youth unemployment were identified using the Multiple Logistic Regression Model. The study revealed that urban youth unemployment was influenced by a number of factors which included age, sex, educational level, household size, marital status, migration status, disability status and regional zones. Based on the results, the study calls upon the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training to design practical oriented education curriculum that can make students become self-reliant after completing their primary and secondary education. The Ministry of Labour and Employment is advised to encourage employers to create conducive working environment for people with special needs and increase employment opportunities for them. Moreover, it is recommended that the government put more efforts towards eradicating youth’s rural-urban migration by creating more employment opportunities in rural areas through actions such as building processing industries for raw materials.
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    The contraceptive of Men toward women’s contraceptive use: the case of Kisarawe district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Ndaki, Rebeka Charles
    This was an academic research that tried to explore the attitudes of men toward women's contraceptives use. The methods of data collection in this study included in-depth interview, focus group discussion (FGD) and documentary review. The respondents were purposefully sampled through developing three variables for a respondent to be fitted in during the study, that is, be in the reproductive age of 15-49 years, being male or female and being in intact or divorced marital status or having sexual partner. Another category of respondents involved professionals who were health practitioners. The study involved 33 participants whereas 18 were male and 15 were female. The number included 2 health practitioners (a doctor and a midwife) from each health facility. The non-professional respondents were conveniently selected from the people who came at the health facility for services. The study findings revealed that, some men have positive attitudes toward women's contraceptives use. It was discovered that the reasons influenced men to support women to use contraceptives include spacing the child, avoiding unplanned pregnancies, woman health problems and failure in use of natural contraceptives. Furthermore, the factors motivating the couples to reach an agreement to use contraceptives include spacing children, avoiding unplanned pregnancy, limiting hardship in life and reducing maternal deaths and abortions. The conclusion of the study suggests that, the attitude of men toward women's contraceptive use is more about supporting the use of contraceptives for their partners. Thus, it is recommended to extent family planning awareness to be able to change the attitude of men from being supportive to be full involved on matters concerning contraceptive use.