Masters Dissertations

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    Opportunities and challenges for women participation in non-traditional occupations in Tanzania: A case of upcountry public bus transport
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Tillya, Aneth Adolf
    The study explored the opportunities and challenges for women working in non-traditional occupations such as public transport service in Tanzania. More specifically, the study was guided by three specific objectives, namely; to examine nature and forms of public transport services available, opportunities available for women in the up-country bus services, the challenges that women face and the strategies women employ to cope with a traditionally male dominated occupation. The study was conducted at Ubungo Bus Terminal based in Dar es salaam city . Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data from the 62women and 43 men who participated in the study. Qualitative methods include the use of semi-structured checklist of questions that was used during in –depth interviews with key informants. Direct observation was also used during this study. Quantitative data involved an administration of a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended questions. The overall study findings reveal that to date the continuing employment of women in traditionally male dominated occupations within the transport industry are constrained by patriarchal social attitudes which play a big role in creating sexual division of labour. The study has managed to demonstrate that there are various opportunities within the public transport sub-sector in which if patriarchal attitudes are addressed , more women can participate in public transport sector. This study concludes that despite of the awareness to the community about women working in the transport sector as bus conductors and drivers, female operators are still facing challenges such as lack of legal contracts, abuse and lack of special laws and regulations which could guide bus owners and employers in promoting gender balance and equality in public bus profession. Therefore, the study recommends that, women should form their own associations which will help them to address and present issues concerning unequal treatment and general challenges at work to the responsible authorities, also women should step out of their comfort zone and grab opportunities available in transport sector.
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    The role of sengerema community radio in addressing gender-based violence
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Ishengoma, Dianus Josephat
    The role of sengerema community radio in addressing gender-based violence Dianus Josephat Ishengoma MA (Gender Studies) University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Development Studies, 2020 This study investigated the role of Sengerema community radio in covering gender- based violence (GBV). Specifically, the study identified ways in which the radio programmers communicate GBV issues to the community, determined the extent to which community members participate in radio GBV dialogues, and evaluated the challenges the community radio faces in disseminating GBV concerns. The study was conducted in Sengerema District Council of Mwanza region in the Lake Zone of Tanzania, and applied both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The qualitative approach elicited information on GBV concerns and role of community radio in the area through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative approach determined the extent to which community members participate in radio during GBV dialogues. The study found that, although Sengerema radio played educative and informative roles to bring about positive changes in people's attitudes towards gender-based violence by raising debates on GBV, empowering women to expose GBV practices, speaking out for the voiceless, and increasing community participation in exposing GVB malpractices, its role in exposing and addressing gender-based violence through its programmers remained largely minimal. With regard to the extent of community participation to the radio programmers, the survey established that only 39.7 percent of the community members participated in radio programmers on GBV. The findings reveal further that men were more likely to participate in the radio programmer by 16 percent than women. The challenges the radio faced included financial constraints, poor co- operation from politicians, and local government leaders. In the meantime, die-hard cultural practices, and the time for airing the radio programmers were found to be unfriendly to the target audience, which in turn limited the effectiveness of the radio in addressing gender-based violence. Based on these findings, the study urges, programmer producers to increase the number of programmers on GBV and consolidate other development programmers with GBV content. The radio management should find more financial resources to boost the radio’s financial capacity and sustainability in addition to engaging local government leaders in radio broadcasting plans. The radio programmer producers should fix their GBV programmers on appropriate time (from 7:00pm to 10:00pm) when most of community members can access those programmers.
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    The role of bodaboda associations in the socio-economic development of the riders; a case of kinondoni district in Dar es Salaam
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Alexander, Chrisanta
    This study aimed at findings out the contribution of bodaboda associations in the improvement of the socio-economic development of the riders in Dar es Salaam region. Specifically, the study examined the nature and set up of bodaboda associations in strengthening the socio-economic development of the riders as well as exploring challenges limiting the potential of bodaboda associations on the economic riders. The study employed a case study research design where both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Purposive and systematic sampling techniques were used to obtain a total of 90 respondents for qualitative while purposive sampling was also used to obtain 12 respondents for qualitative survey of this study. The results indicated that, the nature and set up of most bodaboda associations was not officially recognized in terms of registration and structural management. The study also found that, the benefits that members of their lives of associations’’ members. Moreover, it was revealed that among much other challenge limiting the potential of bodaboda associations on the economic development of the riders. It was recommended that, education should be provided to bodaboda riders’ in order to create awareness on how bodavoda groups/ associations can transform their socio-economic status. On the other hand, the government should review policies and laws to eliminate bureaucratic tendencies to enable acquiring of the registration to bodaboda associations.
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    Disclosure of sexual violence against children in Zanzibar: Investigating practices, facilitators and limitations
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Abdalla, Rukia Bakar
    This study examined factors that influence disclosure of sexual violence (SV) against Children in Zanzibar. Specially, the study explored the SV practices against practices against the children on one hand and examined strategies to improve the disclosure of SV practices against the children on the other. The study collated primary data from 187 random and purposively selected respondents in North B District (Unguja) by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. In-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion and Questionnaires were used to collect data. The respondents of the study comprised of the community members children and different officers dealing with SV against children Qualitative data were analyzed through Thematic Content Analysis (TCA) while the quantitative data were analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 20. The study found that, rape, sodomy, sexual abuse, early marriage and early pregnancy are the common SV practices and incidences in the North B District. Rape identified by 128 (97.7%) respondents, sodomy 126(96%), early pregnancy 84 (64%) and sexual abuse (i.e. touching a child or marking a child to touch the perpetrators in sexual manner) by 127 (97%) respondents. in addition, awareness creation, reporting, mechanism, and the existing legal frameworks were identified as factors that facilitate disclosure of SV against children. However, various loopholes in implementation of legal framework in handling SV cases have been found as lilting factors in disclosing SV. This study concludes that majority of the respondents in the North B district are aware of sexual violence (SV). Despite the awareness, many children are suffering from SV practices, which do not consider some practices (e.g. early marriage) as SV. Ineffective enforcement of mechanisms has affected the efforts of those who have been affected in trying to get their rights before the law. It also discourages those people who are willing to deliver their complaints about SV and those who want to submit their complaints before the court. Therefore, the study recommends that DPP should establish the response system and procedures which are highly effective, including strengthening transparency in handling SV cases. Reporting and confidentiality which will enable the community to disc lode SV cases. Finally, the institutions responsible in handling SV cases should be fair in handling cases especially by avoiding nepotism and corruption.
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    Consequences of maasai child adoption “ngera ekipa culture” on women’s and children’s rights in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Lengai, Nang’idare
    Ngera Ekipa is a name given to a traditional cultural practice among the Maasai community of child adoption. The main objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the Ngera Ekipa culture has affected Maasai women’s and children’s right in Tanzania, particularly those in Longido District in Arusha Region. Thus, the study was guided by three specific objectives, namely to; determine first, procedures involved in the implementation of the Ngera Ekipa culture;second, examine community’s perception towards the Ngera Ekipa culture; examine the consequences that Maasai women and children were facing in implantation of the N Ngera Ekipa culture. This study used exploratory research design and primary data was collected from a sample 77 community members from Longido District in Arusha region. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs). Both qualitative research methods (content analysis of the interviews and FGD responses) were used to analyze the data obtained. Overall study findings reveal that, first there were three procedures in Ngera Ekipa culture, these included ‘asking for a baby, receiving the baby and raising the baby’. Second, the study identified the following consequences of the Ngera Ekipa culture; isolation of women’s and children’s rights: conflicts between the biological child family and the adopting family: conflicts between the biological child family and the adopting family; conflict between the adopted child and both adopting and biological parents; disease transmission and infection; and lastly psychological problems. Therefore, the study concludes by recommending increased awareness among the people in the Maasai community about human rights, particularly women’s and children’s rights, as well as increased awareness on health issues, laws and regulation on legal child adoption. In addition to that, the study recommends more effort to be done in protecting women’s and children’s rights, in the sense that Ngera Ekipa culture and other forms of informal child adoption practices should involve the government, NGOs, researchers, medical doctors, religious leaders and the community.
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    Consequences of maasai child adoption “ngera ekipa culture” on women’s and children’s rights in tanzania A Case of Longido District in Arusha Region
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Lengai, Nang’idare
    Ngera Ekipa is a name given to a traditional cultural practice among the Maasai community of child adoption. The main objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the Ngera Ekipa culture has affected Maasai women’s and children’s right in Tanzania, particularly those in Longido District in Arusha Region. Thus, the study was guided by three specific objectives, namely to; determine first, procedures involved in the implementation of the Ngera Ekipa culture;second, examine community’s perception towards the Ngera Ekipa culture; examine the consequences that Maasai women and children were facing in implantation of the N Ngera Ekipa culture. This study used exploratory research design and primary data was collected from a sample 77 community members from Longido District in Arusha region. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs). Both qualitative research methods ()content analysis of the interviews and FGD responses) were used to analyze the data obtained. Overall study findings reveal that, first there were three procedures in Ngera Ekipa culture, these included ‘asking for a baby , receiving the baby and raising the baby’. Second, the study identified the following consequences of the Ngera Ekipa culture; iolation of women’s and children’s rights: conflicts between the biological child family and the adopting family: conflicts between the biological child family and the adopting family; conflict between the adopted child and both adopting and biological parents; disease transmission and infection; and lastly psychological problems. Therefore, the study concludes by recommending increased awareness among the people in the Maasai community about human rights, particularly women’s and children’s rights, as well as increased awareness on health issues, laws and regulation on legal child adoption. In addition to that, the study recommends more effort to be done in protecting women’s and children’s rights, in the sense that Ngera Ekipa culture and other forms of informal child adoption practices should involve the government, NGOs, researchers, medical doctors, religious leaders and the community.
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    Factors Contributing To Poor Teaching By Primary School Teachers A Case Study Of Musoma Urban District
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2004) Meli, Benjamin Mbeba
    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to poor teaching by primary school teachers in Tanzania with focus on Musoma Urban District. The study had the following specific objectives to access primary school teachers qualification to assess primary schools performance against inspected and non-inspected ones; to examine the contribution of the central government and district council (local government) towards primary school teaching aspects and to assess community participation in primary schools.The study also investigated seven variables that were assumed to have an impact on poor teaching by primary school teachers. These included; teachers ‘ education qualifications, schools’ requirements, pupils per teachers ratio, pupils dropout rates, in –service training, school inspection and pupils’ poor performance. Respondents includes grade iiiA teachers, grade iiiB/C teachers, primary school inspectors, District Education Officers, head teachers, Ward Education Coordinators pupils ‘parents and Ministry officers. Data collection encompassed interviews and questionnaires. Other data collection methods included documentary reviews and classroom observations. Documentary review covered primary as well as secondary sources of information. Secondary sources included attendance reports, examination result and school inspectors’ reports, included journals, papers and related textual materials. Interviews were semi-structured and were administered to some respondents using questionnaires which were both closed-ended and open ended. The study revealed that Universal primary education (UPE) teachers were not only the causal factors for poor teaching by primary school teachers, but also the problem was largely contributed by many variable such as lack of in-services training, high level of poverty, parents’ low level of awareness, family conflicts, frequent changes in schools curricular, lack of teaching as well as learning materials, low salaries and lack of competent teachers to teach complicated subjects. In due regard several recommendations have been suggested for futher action in order to salvage the situation.
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    Mobilizing the mass for participation in self-help projects: a study of road construction and maintenance in same district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1982) Mmbaga, Richard B.
    This study is on mass mobilization towards undertaking self-help projects, where road construction and maintenance in Same District is taken as a case study. Since self-help projects are viewed as a part of the development process in society, the mobilization of the mass towards undertaking S.H.P is also viewed as a process where the success of one stage leads to a higher stage, thus improving the living conditions of the participants. In this particular study, it is clear that road construction in itself does not lead to improved transportation, without the provision of transporters, which in turn will call for the maintenance of the road. It follows that the mass mobilization process has to deal with road construction, after which it is expected that the results of the first stage will lead to a higher stage where unless the participants have attained their expectations, they are unlikely to be motivated to continue with the next phase by the way they had done in the previous one. It is thus the impact of road construction which influences participation in road maintenance. Whereas in this study the importance of people participation in decision making process has been given due weight, at later stage of undertaking the programme it appears that there was less involvement of mass decision making, following by failure to attain the expected objectives, resulting in building roads for the economic exploitation of the participants by truck owners, through businessmen who are final decision makers as far as pricing of commodities sold in the villages shops is concerned. Among other problems in the mobilization process, it is realized that there is declining number of participants in manual work during S.H.P which we feel is a sign of declining morale in the projects, at least as far as rural conditions are involved. Another factor in the changes in socio-economic conditions in the area which have led to some people seeking employment elsewhere. Although some villagers are paying cash interest instead of doing the manual work the failure to have an organized system to ensure that each of the expected participants, do participate fully in the programme and that those who fail to do so are restricted from enjoying the fruits of the labour of others (within the accepted by laws on the project) the mobilization process can generally be regarded as a failure. The revival of the mass mobilization towards undertaking S.H.P will largely depend on the will of the leaders to ensure that all would be participants in the projects are involved fully at all stages of decision making process, so that they are always aware of the problem in hand and the solutions there to, as will have been decided on by the people themselves.
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    Socialist agricultural transformation in Tanzania: a cas study of two villages kyalonsangi and galangalain Iramba Singida region
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1984) Ngai, Peter N
    In the 1960’s the so called wave of the change in Africa almost swept the whole of the continent when colonies under West European capitalism attained what the late Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Nyerere J.K. of Tanzania call flag independence. Following this wave of change on the continent only a little portion of the continent was left still gripped under the naked yoke of colonialism. The portion consist of the colonies of Namibia, South Africa (Azania), the Cannary Islands and Mayotte on the Indian and Atlantic Oceans respectively. However after independence, the colonies retained their social and economic ties with their former masters mean while opening their gates to other capitalist powers to establish military and economic relations. These have been countries which never ruled ex-colonies before but came in to rule through their economic might. Prominent of these include the United States of America, Japan and West German. Others are Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, to mention a few. Socialist countries from what is called Eastern BIOC moved in too. But their presence is least felt because of their little magnitude of economic relations so far registered in Africa, they are for example Russia, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, China etc. Given the nature of capitalist interests and their already complete established economic, and military hegemony in Africa, the countries continue to reign in Africa in the the form of hard currency, expertise, and consultancy. The infiltration of these countries in African economic and social life has had adverse effect in development that the African countries have continued to foster the same colonial objectives under international division of labour. Therefore the countries have remained sources of raw materials, agricultural and mineral products for the capitalist metropolitan industries. As well they (African Countries) have remained markets for capitalist industrial goods. As a result this has greatly impoverished the independent state and particularly the rural sectors. Naked colonial plunder has therefore continued under the ages of neo-colonialism and most African leaders have simply taken the role of supervising this plunder contrary to most people’s expectation on the eve of independence. It is within the context of the above that this study has been carried out in our two villages as representative sample of rural life. The study conducted in Kyalensangi and Galangala Villages (Iramba District) in Singida region aimed at finding out obstacles standing against Tanzania’s struggles to emancipate the rural population from poverty ignorance and disease particularly after the Arusha declaration. From 1967, Tanzania has been making attempts to free Tanzanians from capitalist exploitation by trying to adopt a socialist development strategy. To effect this declaration of intent Tanzania has been issuing a number of policies showing a way to socialist construction. Apart from the Arusha declaration itself, there was a policy of socialism and Rural Development which was issued as an aftermath of the Arusha Declaration emphasis being promotion of ujamaa and self-reliance. In the process of implementation came Education for Self-reliance a sister policy preparing youths in schools for socialist construction. Socialism and Rural Development focused on development of Ujamaa villages hence villagization (BagumaR., 1984:96). Connected to this is the Iringa-Resolution- SIASA NI KILIMO (Political is Agriculture) emphasis being in modernization of agricultural production, Kilimo cha Kufa na Kupona (Agriculture as a matter of death and life) etc. Implementation of socialist construction and transformation of Agricuture along these lines under the proclaimed policies according to then study has had disastrous effects in promoting socialism in the rural areas. First because there have been too many of these policies and sometimes too frequent, the performance of the policies has been gloomy and this has failed transformation of agricultural life along socialist lines. The study has revealed several factors which have led to these shortcomings. The major ones include the discrepancies between policy performances. Policy making implementation covers areas such as policy prescription arising normally from observed imbalances in the state of affairs obtaining in the environment at a given point in time. In our case capitalism was not the right way to rural development. Second follows the articulation of the problem or in other words the policy analysis identification of the causes to the problem and alternative solutions sought, the choice, which makes the course of action likely to lead to the achievement of the anticipated ideal situation hence the policy outcome .Next is the implement programming, supplementation and finally evaluation (Baguma, 1984:96) Policy objective refer to the nature of change sought for example whether change sought is clearly state to enable implementers to translate the policy in implantable programs and also identifying the intensity of change sought .however it is an accepted fact that policies which do not seek fundamental changes in an already established order of things are more easily accepted while changes seeking fundamental transformation are resisted in the in the first stages outright. In the framework of the above study was set to establish what hinders implementation of socialist agricultural transformation were effected have been hampered first by the fact that the policy of socialism and rural development or construction of socialism in our villages is not clearly defined. This has therefore led to accepting the position that socialism can be constructed with capitalist aid whatever the latter’s vested interest. Further, socialism can be built with in traditional basis as it gives a lee way acceptance of what is best and suitable for Tanzania form both the capitalist and socialist camp when it is maintained that in a socialist society it is the socialist attitude of mind and not the rigid adherence to a standard political pattern which is needed to ensure that people care for each other (Nyerere, 1968:1). This has contributed to discrepancies between the policy of socialism and its implementation. The study henceforth has revealed that implementation problems re being brought by lack of non-adherence to socialist universal principles governing both economic and social life. This lack of adherence to social principles has thus created loopholes for capitalist infiltration in social and economic life of Rural areas of Tanzania in general. Owing to such infiltration that is adoption of policies such as Rural Intergration Programs (RIDEPS) and the infiltration of capitalist agencies in the economic life of the country and particularly in the agricultural sector it has jeopardized transformation of Agriculture along socialist lines hence failure of our villages to establish socialist agricultural base. Therefore this situation has brought effects such as failure of visualization in realizing its intended objective of making villages socialist units of production after communal production was unfavoured by the World bank hence the adoption of Development Villages Program. While the villages were collected, agricultural practice remained patriarchal and communal agriculture under collective farming was given least attention. Establishment of village government in the villages led to further improvement because funds generated collective forms are used for operational purposes. The study objectively, focuses on socialist agricultural transformation in the rural areas and detailed information on problems involving its transformation for the past twenty (20) years from the inception of the Arusha Declaration are pinpointed. The study therefore is divided into six parts. Chapter one deals with what is conceived as the problem to be investigated, objective of the study, its social significance and methodology. Chapter two has attempted to give an historical background to the problem of transforming agriculture in our villages along socialist lines since the inception of Arusha Declaration about 20 year ago. It deals with the colonial situation and how agriculture in the colonial period was oriented to serve capitalist interests in the country and how independent Tanzania has been trying to solve the problem which is a colonial heritage in the agricultural economy in the country in general and in villages in particular. It comes out with an analysis of why socialism was declared in 1967. Chapter three constitutes our literature survey. In this chapter major issues such as the Marxist outlook of the Agrarian question, Arusha declaration and view from several Rural Development students are presented. The problem, of socialist agricultural transformation and construction of socialism in our villages under a neo-colonial situation and the role of Finance capital in socialist construction in Tanzania are also discussed. This includes also rural development strategies which have been in force in Tanzania. The question of planning, technology etc, as a compliments to struggles on socialist agricultural transformation in Tanzania villages are also covered. This chapter in summary form establishes the basis hindrances to socialist construction and transformation of agriculture along these lines. Chapter four presents an over-view of the agricultural development and problems involved in establishing a socialist agricultural economy in Singida region. Connected to thus is chapter five which takes us to the District (Iramba), including the two villages. The two chapters combined constitute our research findings and discussion as related to the problem defined in chapter one. The last chapter, chapter six summarizes the major findings and draws some recommendations/suggestions aimed at solving the problem of transforming agriculture along socialist lines in Tanzania villages and in singida region in particular. Recommendations and suggestion are brought up fewer than two categories. One recommends on what should be done in promoting socialist agricultural economy and therefore socialism in Tanzania following our declaration (Arusha).
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    Community government participation in combating corruption in Tanzania: a case Study of Relations between Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) and the Community
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2010) Linje, Oliver E.
    The purpose of the study was to investigate relationship between the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) as a government agency and local community in fighting corruption in Dar es salaam and Mtwara regions. Data was obtained from interviews with the community, which included CSOs, CBOs, religions and PCCB officials as well as a focus group discussion and questionnaire guides. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were involved: twenty two (22) PCCB members of the staff; eighteen (18) members of civil societies and eighty (80) members of the community. The qualitative research approach was applied to get as much information as possible from the community. The study findings reveled that, although the community is aware of the existence and importance of PCCB as government agency for the prevention and combating of corruption in the country, the community’s participation or cooperation in the fight against corruption is minimal. The relationship between PCCB and the community is not strong because the trust between the two is unpredictable. The success of the PCCB in mobilizing the community is questionable. Currently, there is no strong civil society network dealing with governance and anti-corruption related issues. As a result, the coalition-building efforts of PCCB do not seem to have been as successful as had been expected. Lessons learned from the study show that, if there is trust between PCCB and the public/community then co-operation in fighting corruption may become strong and mutual understanding and trust could lead to a sound relationship. The study recommends that, the government should not own the anti-corruption strategies. The role of fighting corruption must not be owned by the government/PCCB or other state machinery alone, but civil society should be given chance to speak so as to eliminate manipulation by the government.
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    Banana Trade and position of women in Rungwe District
    (University of Dar es salaam, 1984) Polisya, Mwaiseje
    This work is a contribution to development studied. Specifically, it is a study in rural development. It attempt to examine the development of banana trade, involvement of women peasants in it as a response to the changing economic conditions in the countryside under neo-colonial conditions and their changing socio-economic position. Its focus is mainly directed at understanding the commoditization process, particularly through export cash crop production, how an internal market is being established for capitalist oriented rural development and the position of women peasants with the example of banana trade in Rungwe district. Market and its dialectical relationship with the capitalist world market. Mainly it concentrates on the period after 1970 which has experienced the development of long distance banana trade as the most developed form of food crop trade undertaken by women peasant. However, the study is limited to the examination of it to further investigation. In the first chapter the specific problem of the research study is presented with a theoretical background of the development of commodity production, capitalism and peasant women question. To locate this study in the development trend of knowledge, some of the previous research studies related to the problem of this research study have been discussed, those of S. mbilinyi and A. Maecarenhpa (1960), kapinga (1975), eto. Also in this chapter, the main assumptions of the study are presented, such as the orientation of the peasant household towards export cash crop production of at the expense of substance food orop production due to otrenohment of capitalism, peasant women’s engagement in banana trade due to economic pressure on the households: differentiation, development of revolutionary potential among banana traders and dissolution of the patriarchal relations due to the internalization of the capitalist oriented relations, etc. The second chapter is devoted to theoretical issues pertaining to this research study. They include commodity production, trade and social- economic relations in the peasant household. Also included are international finance capital, state monopoly capitalism and the primitive accumulation of capital in the epoch of moribund capitalism and the primitive accumulation of capital in the epoch of moribund capitalism. All these are discussed on basis of Marxist-Leninist theory. On basis of cabal’s tested scientific contribution, classes among the peasantry have been discussed in order to clarify the question of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry in relation to the practice of women’s liberation in in Tanzania and the historical trend of women’s involvement in banana trade. The third chapter deals with researcher methodology. It starts with exposition of some general epistemological aspects of research. Then it goes further by discussing the data collection methods which include documentation, interview and observation. Sampling of the area of study, the respondent and data analysis techniques are also discussed. The forth chapter presents and discusses the research findings on the relationships between tea production and commoditization of food crops, particularly bananas. Also the economic position of women banana traders has been discussed with main focus on the analysis of the forces such as labor migration which have played a part in forcing women to engage themselves in banana trade. Analysis of accumulation, differentiation among the banana traders and the new relations has revealed the fact that they are consequences of the capitalist oriebted banana trade which holds away in Rungwe district. Henceforth, it has been relevant to analyse the move of big capital into banana business, the prospects for banana cooperatives and the revolutionary potential af banana traders. Finally, in the fifth chapter the research study comes out with concluding remarks based on theoretical framework and findings n of this research study in relation to the social significance of the study in the context national democratic revolution as noble historical task
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    Male involvement in reproductive health services: a case of Sumbawanga district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Mnubi, Luckness Chiragwile
    Employing a case study design, in which both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used, this study investigated males involvement in reproductive health services, in Sumbawanga District, Tanzania by a) exploring the perceptions of men and women on males’ involvement in reproductive health services) identifying the factors hindering male involvement in reproductive health services; and c) establishing appropriate strategies for promoting male involvement in reproductive health services. The sample of the study population consisted of 114respondents; including four Social Welfare Officers from the District Headquarters, 10 health care providers from Ward’s Health Centres, and 100 married partners from five participating Wards in the district. The data were obtained through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and documentary reviews. The obtained data were then analysed qualitatively based on the patterns and themes of the study and quantitatively through descriptive statistics. The findings show that92% of the respondents aged 20 to 40 years believed it was important and beneficial for male partners to participate in reproductive health services as resourceful individuals and key determinants of a good health system. However, 8% of respondents above the age of 41 years perceived male involvement in reproductive health services as not important. The data also revealed that 75% of respondents understand male involvement as deciding on the number of children to have, while 15% as couple discussion on issues related to reproductive health, and 10% as accompanying their partners in accessing reproductive health services. When comes to factors hindering males involvement in reproductive health services, negative attitude was the most prominent factor reported by 43%of respondents, cultural beliefs supported by 15%, traditional modes of services delivery supported by 11%, low knowledge supported by10% of respondents, religious beliefs supported by 9%, poor quality of service delivery supported 7%, and finally, 5% supported poor health facilities` infrastructures. In the light of the findings, 74% of respondents suggested the need for promoting sensitisation programs and activities on the roles of males in reproductive health services as the best intervention. Also, 14% of the respondents suggested formulation of policy that encourages male involvement, and 12% preferred improving accessibility to comprehensive reproductive health services in public health facilities as strategies towards promoting males’ involvement in reproductive health. Moreover, the study recommends the need for a government to ensure accessibility of enhanced comprehensive reproductive health services and formulating a gender sensitive reproductive policy covering the needs of men and women as well as investing adequate funds and resources for promoting programs and activities in the community and at the national level. Finally, the study suggests the need for a similar comprehensive study be conducted to analyse and measure whether the existing reproductive health policy in Tanzania is gender sensitive, effective, and realistic enough to promote males’ involvement in reproductive health services.
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    The role of civic education in mobilizing citizens’ participation in community policing: a case study of Ilala district Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2010) Masatu, Modesta
    This study investigated the role of civic education in mobilizing citizens’ participation in community policing, a case study of Ilala District in Dar es Salaam region. This is due to the fact that where there is no security there is also no development. Basides, community policing has been proved to be more sustainable and efficient than traditional policing. The study sample included policy makers, implementers and the citizens who are in one way or another affected. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used. Data collection instruments were questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus Group Discussions and documentary reviews. The findings reveal that despite the fact that police officers provide awareness to citizens, the awareness has not been enough to mobilise them for community policing. Those who participate in community policing do so in order to be paid. Again some police officers have not yet understood well what community policing is all about. The study recommends to the government to invest in security management system. The government through her security management committee should establish policies and legal framework to provide civic education to the community. That is to ensure that every citizen know his or her rights, duties and responsibility in the community especially concerning promotion of peace and security.
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    Mass-parties and the problematic of transition to socialism in the LDCs: the case of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1988) Sango, Kamana Kitakaia
    The primary objective of this study is to make a critique of the capacity of mass (political) parties, which are dominant in the LDCs, to lead the masses towards the transition to socialism. Under stably, the upsurge of nationalist struggles against colonial domination had united various social groups behind nationalist movements. Despite the unpretending generality of the unity of forces in the struggles for independence, it was the petty-bourgeois class which led the nationalist struggles. The reason for this development can be explained within the historical context of the relations of imperialism with colonial countries. The upsurge of nationalist struggles however, was influenced by historical events, -first, by the great October Socialist Revolution of the Soviet Union, and Secondly by the imperialist World War II both of which led in varying degrees to the crisis of the World Capitalist system. Following the crisis of capitalism, the colonial system of imperialism was weekend. The maintenance of colonies was thus a burden. As a corollary of this, imperialists resolved to grant political independence to their colonies, provided that state power remained in the hands of those who would protect interests of capital, and so maintain the historical relations with imperialism. It was therefore to the petty-bourgeoisie, organized in their nationalist parties, that political power was granted. In the post-independence developments that followed, these nationalist movements become the dominant mass parties in their respective states which become constitutionally mono-party states. The new party-states, now with state-power, presided over the colonial economy and institutions which carried forward the under-development mission of imperialism. In the process of the development of the neo-colonial countries, the system of underdevelopment and its structure are strengthened and regenerated. But the neo-colonial economy expresses the contradictions inherent in the capitalist system adopted at independence. The solution to these contradictions had to be found in the field of ideology of the parties in power. This was ‘socialism’ under different labels. The ruling mass-parties therefore made a spontaneous option for socialism as their ideology, to build socialism using the same capitalist structures and the same party organization. But an historical appraisal and the interests of the asses in the LDCs disclose their disfavor for the capitalist system. This is the case of Tanzania, a country whose ruling mass-party, the CCM, we have taken as a case of our study in respect of the observations we have advanced above. This study is organized in six chapters. In chapter one we present the problem of our research. The problem is presented in a historical approach to account for events and their inter-connection. Upon arrival at the statement of the problem we also show our specific objectives of the study, hypotheses guiding the study, and the methodology used. Chapter two consists of two sections. Section one deals with epistemological issues on the transition problematic. It discusses and differentiates between social democratic revolution in its narrow and broad sense on the one hand, and the socialist revolution on the other. An analysis of the social forces capable of forming an alliance during the democratic stage of the revolution is presented. While section one deals with our theoretical model to be used in our study, section two gives a survey of literature on ‘Socialism in Tanzania. It examines the themes on party organization, structure, ideology and class struggle. Chapter three discusses the origins, structure, and organization of the CCM. It explores the beginning of nationalism on Tanzania mainland, and the emergence of TANU as a nationalist movement. The struggle for independence and the post-independence developments are presented in a historical analysis. It explains how TANU became the dominant party, and the merger of TANU and the ASP that gave birth to the CCM. Following from chapter three, the ideology of the party is discussed in chapter four. We hold this chapter to be the most important part of our study. This is based on the assumption that a political party, as a social organization, should have aims and objectives which unite its members for a common cause. Analysis of ideology in relation to the party’s organization reveals whose class interests a given ideology serves. Chapter five analyses the position and organization of workers and peasants in industry policies and policy implementation. The discussion in this chapter analyses their position and lack of autonomy to organize themselves. Chapter six gives a summary of the study findings and suggestions for future research, on ‘untapped’ aspects of the transition problematic. The conclusions of the findings are related to the hypotheses of the study.
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    The role of Community –Based Forest Management Approach in improving local communities social services provision in Tanzania : the case of Kilwa District, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2018) Hashim, Halfan
    This study examined the role of Community-Based Forest Management Approach in improving the provision of social services in Kikole, Kisangi and Nanjilinji . A villages in Kilwa district, Tanzania especially, it examined four inter-related issues. First, it looks at the implementation of Community _based Forest Management Approach in Kilwa district as a whole. Second, it examined the challenges facing Community- Based Forest Management Approach in Kilwa district as a whole. Second, it examined the challenges facing Community-Based Forest Management Approach in the district. Third, it identified the forest products to which the communities have access. Lastly, the study examines the contribution of Community Based Management Approach in improving social service provision in Kilwa district in general and in the selected villages in a particular. Both qualitative and quantitative data were obtained from primary and secondary sources, using structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion, field observations and in depth interviews. The study was guided by political Ecology theory and Common-pool Resource Management theory to analyze the data. Overall study findings show that education, health and water sectors have received various kinds of assistance from the government of the three villages. For instance, a number of classrooms and staff houses have been built and boreholes have been sunk in the villages. The findings also indicate that Community- Based Forest Management faces challenges such as the dishonesty of some agriculturalists and pastoralists done in the community forests. Furthermore, it has been established that the people in the three villages have access to such forest products as timber, fuel-wood and building materials. The study concludes that Community-Based Forest Management has significantly improved the provision of social services, thereby helping to alleviate poverty in the selected villages. Finally, the study recommends that other villages with huge tracts of land establish VLFRs and put them under CBFM because it has been shown that, if properly managed, CBFM can help to reduce poverty in rural areas.
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    Impact of primary education development plan in Tanzania: The case of Ngorongoro District
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2009) Olengaire, Joseph Loleku
    This study investigated the impact of primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) In Tanzania with a focus on Ngorongoro District in Arusha Region. The objectives of study were: to examine the mechanisms used in implementation of PEDP, to assess the extent to which PEDP had improved the quality of education as opposed to the pre-PEDP period, to evaluate challenges faced during the implementation of PEDP objectives in the study area and to propose the way forward. The study also investigated other variables that were assumed to have an impact on proper implementation of PEDP objectives. These include teachers’ qualifications, provision of learning and teaching materials, pupils’ –teacher ratios, pupils’ –facilities ratio, in-service training, pupils’ academic performance and teacher’s motivations and incentives. Data collection involved use of questionnaires and interviews, documentary reviews, direct observations and focus group discussions. The findings revealed that the plan was successful in enrolments of pupils, but had not attained all the objectives. The were not enough teaching and learning materials in schools, not enough teachers’ houses, not enough teachers, desk, books and classrooms. The study also found that there were factors that affected the implementation of PEDP which included; low level of education awareness among parents, long distance that pupils travelled between schools and their homes, difficult learning and teaching environment, un-motivated teachers, parents valuing cultural aspects more than education as well as lack of community involvement in the implementation process of PEDP. Given the fact that PEDP did not achieve all its objectives as targeted, a more comprehensive plan that will encompass all aspects of quality education is required.
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    Assessment of the experiences of female prisoners in Tanzania : A case study of Kinondoni prison
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2005) Mgumia, Jacqueline Halima Kayyemba
    There were two reasons in undertaking a research about women prisoners at Kingolwira female prison. First, it is the only prison for women in Tanzania. Second, although women represent 6.6 percent of the total prison population in Tanzania, very few studies have done toward female prisoners in the country, compared to studies carried out in Australia, Britain, and United States. The study examined characteristics and conditions of a female prisoner at Kingolwira Prison. This research was designed as qualitative case study, whereby interviews were administered to 30 female prisoners and 12 prison officials at Kingolwira Prison. However, qualitative approach was also used to describe and draw similarities in what female prisoners do, say and reported as their experiences during and after imprisonment. The study employed both purposely and stratified sampling techniques in selection of respondents of the study. The data collected was analyzed was analyzed using simple descriptive statistic and narrative analysis through the Statistical Package of Social Science at University of Dar es salaam. The findings describes in what ways the Kingolwira female prisoners both resembles and differs from the national profiles of imprisoned female population found in other countries. The female prisoner at Kingolwira is older, poor, less educated, likely to be a mother with more than three children, to have suffered from a history of physical and sexual abuse as an adult, and to be serving time for a violent or domestic offence. She lives in a prison which lacks medical facilities, quality food, and rehabilitation programs. The findings recommended for more research in relation to women’s criminality, abuse and poverty, while improvements toward health, sports, and parenting programs should be considered immediately. The study also emphasizes on development of programs which will address “life of women after prison” by focusing on economic empowerment, self-esteems and parental/child relationship of female prisoners.
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    Juvenile offenders before the courts: A case of study of juvenile criminal court proceeding in Tanzania with special reference to Kariakoo, Kibaha and Manzese primary Courts
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 1988) Mutembei, Iruganyuma Bazira
    Mass migration of the young from rural areas are producing more and more youth at poverty and starvation levels. Perhaps there are more youth in Tanzania today than at any other time who are shuttled around countryside, without firm family, social and economic roots. It has once been noted in the Sunday news paper that: “More so in developing than in developed countries, youth between 15 and 24 years of age represent a large segment, a third to a half, of the total population. Yet, they are economically deprived and politically marginal to the many decisions made by governments that affect their lives” [Sunday News, July 14th, 1985, p.8]. In the midst of rapid social and technological change, particularly in developing countries like Tanzania, and in the throes of unplanned urbanization, many youth confront conflicting rules of conduct and the fringes of peer group behaviour that may be enticing but that is also viewed legally as deviant. Crime among youth has been increasing rapidly in Tanzania. My concern here is that those youths who commit crime are beginning their delinquent careers earlier today than a generation ago. Ages 13 and 14 are increasingly the ages of the onset of delinquency. The major juvenile justice issue is the fact that children and young persons need to provided with a complementary concern about maintaining their legal rights to face the accused, to be defended professionally and not to suffer from inadequate evidence against them. Thus, this research focuses on juvenile offenders, particularly, those who find themselves before juvenile criminal courts. The emphasis has been put on the development of juvenile criminal justice in Tanzania, the legal philosophy that underlies juvenile criminal justice and the treatment of juvenile offenders
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    Effectiveness Of Sexual And Reproductive Health Education For School-Based Adolescents In Tanzania; A Case Of Kinondoni Municipality
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2014) Shawishi, Salum
    Sexual and Reproductive Health Education policy in Tanzania started in 1980’s. its aim ia to improve adolescent’s’ needs for appropriate knowledge, skills, and information against sexual risk behaviors which have negative consequences to their future lives. While studies on the implementation of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health policies exist, few have hardly assessed the effectiveness of sexual of sexual and reproductive sexual education for school – based adolescents that is incorporated in the national education curriculum. Using policy analysis framework, this study documented on adolescents’ awareness on various sexual and reproductive health issues, assessment of content of teaching and learning strategies used in schools as well as contextual factors facilitating or constraining the implementation of the policy. In achieving that, case study research design was employed where by both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used. The study managed to involve 6 primary and secondary schools and 285 respondents were covered in the study area. Various sampling procedures were used depending on need of information from respondents by the researcher. Combination of data collection methods was used in collecting data from secondary and primary sources and data was processed and analyzed using SPSS and MS- Excel programmes. The finding indicated a number of shortcomings in the implementation of such a policy for school-based adolescents. These include incomprehensive contents of teaching and learning materials; inactive and non-participatory teaching and learning strategies; absence of peer education and other stakeholders; absence of guidance and counseling rooms in schools; absence of in-service trainings for facilitators including subjects’ teachers and school matrons and patrons. Moreover, there is less emphasis on the policy implementation by Municipal Education Officers. Consequently the majority of adolescent do not receive right information, knowledge and skills against sexual risk behaviors. This study recommends on the improvements of teaching and learning materials, strategies used in enhancing this education particularly on establishment of peer educators, in-service training involvement of other stakeholders, the use of active and participatory teaching and learning methods, allocation of enough budget as well as enough emphasis by government officials.
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    NGOs and Poverty Alleviation: the Case of World Vision
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2002) Suleiman, Sokile Charles Sije
    The current number of registered NGOs in Tanzania is as high as about 10,000, most of which claim to work towards Poverty Alleviation directly or indirectly. The povertystatus of rural resource — poor households are however, on increase. With such dynamics it is imperative to study what exactly NGOs do to alleviate poverty and whether such interventions are sustainable. It is in the view of this scenario that this research was conducted, partly to see V/hat NGOs do and how they do it and partly to see if the achievements are both relevant to poverty alleviation and are lifelong.Consequently, a thorough literature survey was undertaken to see the onset of the proliferation of NGOs in developing countries and their intervention trends. World Vision Tanzania was taken as a case study whence institutional capacity and nature of interventions of the same were studied. Parallel to this, the socio-economic changes and sustainability of the activities of WVT were closely researched.The study found that W VT has built an elaborate Institutional Capacity for poverty alleviation; that the interventions are relevant to poverty alleviation and that the socioeconomic status of the households in question has slightly improved. However, the activities were only somewhat sustainable. In lieu of this, concrete and specific recommendations were advanced forth. These are streamlined for WVT, other NGOs and the government. Finally, a direction for future research was forwarded.