Masters Dissertations

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    Assessment of librarians’ competencies in cataloguing and classification at the university of Dar es Salaam
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2023-05) Kabalo, Erasto Clavery
    An assessment was conducted at the University of Dar es Salaam to ascertain librarians’ competencies in cataloguing and classification, specifically, the focus was on three elements of librarians’ competence; attitude, knowledge and skills. Qualitative data was gathered; interview method was conducted to 6 key informants. Primary data was also collected from 80 respondents through self-administered questionnaires. The assessment was quantitatively analyzed using SPSS and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to ascertain the causal-effect relationship between librarians’ competencies and effectiveness in classification and cataloguing. This study revealed that librarians possess necessary skills and knowledge required for cataloguing and classification. On librarians’ attitude the findings exposed that librarians have positive attitude toward cataloguing and classification. The study identified several challenges such as lack of training opportunity, cumbersomeness of the exercises, obsolete and inadequacy tools and lastly poor interest in cataloguing and classification exercise. SEM results indicated that librarians’ skills and attitude have a significant relationship with Effectiveness in Cataloguing and Classification. The findings imply that a unit increase in librarian skills will have a 26% effect on Effective Cataloguing and Classification. More so, findings entail that a unit increase in Librarian Attitude has a 38% effect on Effective Cataloguing and Classification at UDSM library. Conversely, SEM results confirm that librarians’ knowledge has a statistically insignificant relationship with Effective Cataloguing and Classification at UDSM library. The findings imply that mere knowledge without the right attitude and supportive skills reduces librarians’ competencies in partaking cataloguing and classification activities. Accordingly, insights from key informants reveal that, for effectiveness of cataloguing and classification processes, complimentary factors such as consistency, clarity, sufficient timeline, strict supervisions, incentives and motivations should be considered. Therefore, the study recommended that UDSM library should organize in-service trainings, refresher workshops and seminars on cataloguing and classification, aiming at; equipping and updating the library staff on methods of cataloguing and classification; eliminate fear of doing original cataloguing, removing negative attitude towards cataloguing and classification, fund allocation, update library staff on the recent development on computerized cataloguing and classification.
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    Assessing personal information management practices among library staff at the university of Dar es salaam, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-05) Rashid, Nakivona Hashim
    This study assessed personal information management practices among library staff at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Specifically, the study assessed awareness of personal information management practices among UDSM library staff, examined tools used by UDSM library staff to manage personal information, evaluated factors influencing effective management of personal information and identified challenges facing UDSM library staff in managing personal information. The study population was library staff and sample size was 116 respondents selected by using census technique. Data were collected using questionnaire, interview and Focus Group Discussions. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using content analysis and Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 23 respectively. Findings revealed that UDSM library staff were aware of personal information management practices. Both physical and electronic tools were used to manage personal information. Furthermore, the information cycle was the most influencing factor for the effective management of personal information. The challenges reported in the management of personal information include; inadequate information management skills, shortage of time, information overload, inability to access multiple sources of information, inflexibility of information file formats in adopting change in technology and the use of inappropriate information management tools. The study concludes that the University of Dar es Salaam library staff were aware of personal information management practices; physical and electronic tools for the management of personal information were used.
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    Analysis of climate variability impacts on livelihoods and response of smallholder farmers around Ruaha national park, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-07) Lyimo, Stephen Theobald
    Monitoring and evaluation(M&E) are very important in attaining targeted goals in education, especially in teaching and learning process that influence student academic performance. Ruangwa district experienced poor students’ academic performance in the Form Four National Examinations in the academic years of 2016 through 2019. It was thus crucial to examine the extent to which monitoring, and evaluation is paramount in enhancing pedagogical activities for improved students’ academic performance. A descriptive research design was applied to gather the views of respondents on the role of monitoring and evaluation in improving teaching and learning. Purposive sampling technique was used to select headmasters, District Education Officer, School Quality assurance and Ward Education Officers who were key respondents. In addition, teachers and students were also selected using purposive sampling technique. In-depth interviews and focus group discussion techniques were used to collect data whereas total of 38 respondents were engaged in the study. The collected data was analysed using thematic data analysis method. The results of the study have shown that the strategies of M&E practice were not applied effectively in monitoring and evaluating teaching and learning process in the selected schools. In addition, it was found out that the effectiveness of M&E practice on improving teaching and learning was hindered by shortage of Education officers, inadequate government support, inadequate physical facilities, inadequate teaching and learning materials and poor implementation of M&E recommendations. Furthermore, it was found that in the study area there was slight implications of M&E practice on improving teaching and learning because students’ academic performance remained poor despite the implementation of M&E in the selected public secondary schools. Generally, to improve the teaching and learning process as well as academic performance, M&E budget and school budget should be increased to eradicate the challenges hindering the effectiveness of M&E on improving teaching and learning process in the selected public secondary schools in Ruangwa district
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    Statistical analysis of the factors influencing child labour working hours in Tanzania: evidence from 2014 integrated labour force survey
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-10) Ndunguru, Maria
    This study aimed at determining the factors that influence child labour working hours and child labour force participation in Tanzania. The study used a cross-sectional secondary 2014 ILFS data. Because of truncated case in the dependent variable so as to control problem of sample selection bias the study employed the Heckman model with two dependent variables namely: child labour working hours and child labour force participation for primary and secondary equations respectively. The study showed that number of working hours a child exerts is statistically significantly and positively related to child’s age and child sex. Also the results showed that number of working hours a child participates is statistically significantly and negatively related to education of head of household and ownership of household farm. The study revealed that the factors that cause a child to participate in labour force are statistically significantly and positively related to child age, ownership of household farm, residence, household size, a household being poor and spouse participation in labour force. Also the study showed that educated head of household and a spouse being educated significantly and negatively pushes a child into labour force. The study suggests that the government through Ministry of Labour and Employment and NGOs need to raise awareness to children, households and society on the meaning and dangers of child labour as well as how they can be involved in order to eliminate the problem. The government should continue to educate parents especially in the rural areas on the importance of having small family size. The existing law of child Act, 2009, Employment and labour relations Act, 2004 need to be reviewed and be enforced by relevant authorities in collaboration with local community.
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    Assessing information and communication technology (ICT) Integration in teaching and learning: A case study of Temeke Municipality in Dar es salaam, Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Maage, I
    Assessing information and communication technology (ICT) Integration in teaching and learning: A case study of Temeke Municipality in Dar es salaam, Tanzania Ibrahim Maage Master of Research and Public Policy (MRPP) University of Dar es salaam, College of Social Science, 2020 This study assessed the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Temeke Municipality located in dar es salaam,Tanzania . the specific objectives of the study were to establish the extent to which ICT resources are adequately available for facilitating teaching and learning in secondary schools: to examine the factors constraining the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools: and to assess teachers’ and students’ perceptions about the integration of ICT in teaching and learning. A case study research design was employed whereby a sample of 100 respondents including 65 teachers and 35 students from 30 public and private secondary schools were involved. Data collection methods included questionnaires, observation and documentary review. The study found that most of schools lack ICT resources whereby out of 30 schools 9(30%) have adequate ICT resources while 12(40%) schools have absolutely no ICT resources and 9(30%) have inadequate ICT resources. It was further revealed that the ICT resources available in each school do not match with the number of students. Furthermore, schools were facing various ICT constraints including lack of enough time for using ICT, lack of training in ICT, lack of ICT resources, inability by the teachers and students to use ICT, lack of confidence to use ICT, reluctance to change from traditional to modern teaching and learning approaches; and lack of incentives. Moreover, the study found that teachers and students had negative perceptions regarding the of ICT integration. These include not being ready to learn ICT in order to use it in teaching and learning , not being motivated to use ICT in teaching and learning, lacking confidence to use ICT in teaching and learning being reluctant to use ICT in teaching and learning and feeling and that it is difficult to use ICT in teaching and learning.It is recommended that the government should be pro-active in implementing the existing ICT educational policies particularly in secondary schools by improving ICT schools’ infrastructures such as ICT classes and also supporting the installation of ICT equipment, distributing the ICT equipment to schools and recruiting professional ICT teachers. In addition, school managements should motivate teachers and students to learn how to use ICT in teaching and learning, organize in-service ICT training to teachers and mobilize funds for ICT. Also, it is recommended that the study should be conducted in other regions on the perception of educational stakeholders in integrating ICT in secondary schools in Tanzania.
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    Determinants of Tanzania gross domestic savings for the period: 1980-2017
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Sooi, F. S
    Determinants of Tanzania gross domestic savings for the period: 1980-2017 Fadhili Stephen Sooi Master of applied economics University of Dar es salaam, College of Social Sciences, 2020 Despite the financial sector reforms that Tanzania had gone through, the country’s Gross Domestic Savings is still low. In the context of the country’s recent push for industrialization, it is clear Domestics saving will play a role particularly in financing the large required projects. This study used time series data covering the 1980-2017 periods and an Auto Regressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) model to address the following objectives. One, explaining the trend of Tanzania Gross Domestics Saving (GDS) and two, identifying the determinants of GDS in Tanzania. This study came up with the following findings; both current account balance and national debt had a positive effect on GDS in the short run and negative effect in the long run. Income per capital had a positive effect on GDS both in the short run and in the long run. The study further found evidence of a negative relationship between GDS and dependency ratio in the short run although in the long run the relationship was positive. This may reflect the country’s relatively larger young age dependents (who are the future potential labour force) responsible for increased domestic saving in the future. In addition, interest rate on saving (deposit) had a positive effect on GDS in the long run although in the short run the effect was insignificant. This may be caused by the country’s low interest rate on saving. The Error Correction Coefficient was estimated at 189.1 percent which means deviation from long run equilibrium of GDS (caused by change in the determinant of GDS) in one year is corrected by 189.1 percent in the following year. The government needs to continue promoting measures which reduce fertility rate while strengthening social services provision to support the current dependent population with a view that (because of it being dominated by young age dependents) it will form a future potential working population and increase the country’s saving. Furthermore, there is a need to promote Tanzania export and reduce negative current account balance.
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    Factors influencing sub-optimal uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV: A case study of Igawilo and Ruanda Health Centres, Mbeya Region
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kidamwina, D .P
    Factors influencing sub-optimal uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV: A case study of Igawilo and Ruanda Health Centres, Mbeya Region. Domitila Patrick Kidamwina, Master of Public Health University of Dar es salaam, College of Social Science, 2020 The diagnosis of HIV in infants born to HIV positive women is a big challenge in countries that have limited resources such as Tanzania. According to existing data only about half of the HIV –exposed infants are actually diagnosed for HIV in the early infant diagnosis (EID) programs across Africa. There is a need to identify the factors that contribute to suboptimal update of EID in these countries, including Tanzania. This qualitative study was carried out with the aim of seeking to identify the factors that contribute to suboptimal uptake of EID. This was achieved through conducting qualitative interviews that involved interviewing key informants that included nurses working at Igawilo and Ruanda health facilities: laboratory staff working at the central HIV testing laboratory in Mbeya and mothers of the infants that were brought to the health facility for EID testing. The Interview guide was prepared and one on the interview was conducted with the key informants after ethical consent. The interviews were then transcribed and translated into English. Transcripts were coded to identify codes and themes. The study findings show that there are challenges at the health facilities that contribute to low uptake of EID. The include poorly trained staff, lack of utilization of EID tools at the facilities and low staffing. For the laboratories, there are issues of high turnaround times that are the result of sample rejection, downtime of testing equipment and shortage of staffing. For the clients who bring their infants to the health facilities for EID testing, long waiting time for EID testing among mothers were reported and poor communication with mothers to return for the sample returns of their infants. These challenges can be addressed by improving on communication, addressing stigma, training of nurses at health facilities and ensuring that laboratories and health facilities are equipped with well-trained personnel.
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    A remote sensing and GIS Based analysis of Land use changes and their Implementation on the Livelihood of Peri-urban household (The case of Kwembe Word in Dar es salaam City)
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Urassa, D.K
    A remote sensing and GIS Based analysis of Land use changes and their Implementation on the Livelihood of Peri-urban household (The case of Kwembe Word in Dar es salaam City) Dioscory Kanuthi Urassa Master of Science (Geographical Information System) University of Dar es Salaam, College of Social Science, 2020 Dar es salaam city in Tanzania like other cities in Africa and elsewhere has been expanding outward to encroach into peri-urban areas. This has resulted into land use change and impact to the livelihoods of the peri-urban household. The study aimed at identifying the impact of peri- urban land use change on people’s livelihood. Specifically the study focused on examining the changes in the peri- urban area based on the analysis of remotely sensed satellite imagery from 1986, 1996, 2006,2016 and predicting the land use change for 2026 as well as analyzing both the factors that contributed to the land use changes. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches so as to complement each other. A total of 100 household were randomly selected from whom data were collected through face to face interview quided with a questionnaire. The statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze field data while the images were analyzed using Arc GIS software. The result revealed that there have been land use changes from the year 1986 to 2016. Before 2006, the built up areas were 47.044 Ha which increased to 923.160 Ha in 2016. This meant that a total of 876.116 Ha of Land had been changed from other land uses to built up areas. Likewise for the vacant land which was 4840.989 Ha in 2006, it was reduced to 2264.525 ha. Thu there was a rapid change in land uses, mostly after the urban development project period (after 2006). The predicted land use showed that in 2026 there will be an increase in built-up areas by 650.34 Ha while partial built up and vacant areas were estimate to decrease by 359.37Ha and 346.125Ha respectively. The research revealed that the major factors influencing land use change in Kwembe were planned growth and expansion of Dar es salaam city and the availability of social services in the area. Change of the household’s economic base and adoption of nonfarm activities among some of the household’s were noted to be the main impact of land use change on livelihoods of peri-urban household. The study recommended the need for urban planning providing land for public uses and facilities and areas for economic investment and peri-urban agriculture during land use planning. Also there is a need of create bylaws that will ensure the proper management and control of the use of land in he peri-urban for sustainable livelihoods.
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    Assessment of greenhouse GAS emissions from cattle’s manure, management: the case of Mufindi District, Iringa. Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Sifael, Daniel Joseph
    Assessment of greenhouse GAS emissions from cattle’s manure, management: the case of Mufindi District, Iringa. Tanzania Daniel Joseph Sifael Master of Science (Geographical Information Systems) University of Dar es salaam, College of Social Science, 2020 THS EAF TD885.5.G73.T34S542 Livestock is an important asset to many families in Iringa. It plays a crucial role in the family economy through selling and using livestock by products. However , if livestock excretions are not well managed, environmental impacts such as GHG emissions are inevitable. This study assessed the GHG emissions-Methane and Nitrous Oxide from cattle’s manure management in Mufindi District, Iringa Tanzania. The objectives of the study were threefold: to examine cattle distribution, to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management and to assess the variations of CH4 and N2O emissions in the district. Data for this study such as climate, cattle population, animal live weight, milk samples and manure management methods were collected through remote sensing, questionnaire, GPS surveying, cattle live weight measurement, milk sample collection and document review such as 2006 IPCC guidelines, cattle distribution was classified using ArcGIS 10.4.1 software and mapped on the basis of indigenous and daily cattle, and cattle per square bolometer (cattle density). Estimation of GHG emissions was done in 2016 MS. Excel using improved Tier I approach. Reference was made to the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national GHG emissions inventories for calculations of CH4 and N2O from manure management. The estimated GHG emissions were exported to a shapefile of Mufindi district in ArcGIS 10.4.1 and the variation of CH4 and N2O emissions were assessed by wards. The findings show uneven distribution of cattle in Mufindi district. Ikweha ward had the highest number of cattle (134559) while M/Tazara had the lowest (43). The results also reveal a significant contribution of different animal groups to total emission. The two great emitters of CH4 were bulls at 0.109 Gg CH4 yr-1 cows at 0.661 Gg CH4 yr-1. In N2O emission from manure, bulls produced 0.0004 Gg N2O yr-1 followed by cows with an emission estimates of 0.0021 Gg N2O yr-1. Variation of emissions by wards; Ifwagi ward has the highest dairy cattle emissions while Ikweha ward was seen to emit highest from indigenous cattle. The study concludes that poor manure management enhances emissions of GHGs. To minimize emissions this study proposes use of manure for biogas generation, quick removal of manure from the confinement, separation of solid and liquid manure and covering; which are socially, environmentally and economically viable for the farmers to adopt during manure management.
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    An assessment of the capacity building initiatives in ensuring sustainable rural water supply Projects in Kisarawe District, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Juma, Teddy
    This research aimed to asses’ sustainability of rural water supply project (RWSP) through capacity building interactive undertaken and community involvement. The research used Kisarawe district as the geographical research area with the desire to respond to three main objectives. The first objective was to examine the capacity building initiatives undertaken during water supply projects initiation; second objective to evaluate community involvement during implementation of rural water supply project and last specific objective was to appraise the sustainability of rural water supply projects. The research employed community -participatory approach to review several empirical studies and it was revealed that community participation is limited to the majority of rural water Supply Project (RWSP) in Africa and Tanzania in particular. Exploratory sequential design was employed to gather information from participants including 135 local communities and 5 official from local government authorities probability proportionate to size (PPS) was used to determine sample size for four villages that are Kibuta, Mzenga, ‘A” Mzenga “B” and Msanga Methods of data collection employed were; household survey using questionnaire, in –depth interviews, observation and documents review. Quantitative data analysis used Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS ) version 22 while that of qualitative used content analysis approach. Generally, evidence from literature reviewed evidence from and findings of this research revealed communities played great part during initiation of RWSP through cash and labor contribution. After contraction of water schemes COWSO were entrusted to manage operational and maintenance of water infrastructure on behalf of communities. However, the findings showed that COWSO lacked financial and technical capabilities to ensure that the improvement on water supply as observed and sustained. Also it was revealed that; there is limited or lack of communities’ involvement and participation in RWSP after construction of water schemes. The research then concludes that, When communities are adequately involved in all stages of RWSP is helps to create sense of ownership over the constructed water infrastructures hence it helps towards communities readiness on the contribution in operational and maintenance of such infrastructures. It is therefore recommended that, when implementing a project that affects livelihood of local communities it is vital for such local communities to be adequately involved and participate in all stages of the project. This will help to transform the intentions and goals of the project to local communities, hence influence sustainability of such project. It is important that the government should make sure availability of rural water policy to community members so as to create awareness on policy issues. Also, cross sectional research between Kisarawe district and other administrative areas should be conducted. This will help to compare experiences of different communities who implement rural water supply project, and this will help to add value on observed findings in this research.
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    The influence of mode of payment for healthcare on prescription patterns in public and private health facilities in Kinondoni Municipal, Dar es Salaam Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Nyakubega, Peter
    This study embarked on investigation of prescription patterns in public and private hospital in kinondoni Municipal; Dar es salaam, Tanzania as influenced by different modes of payment for health care. The study employed quantitative approach in data collection based on descriptive research design. The study employed systematic random sampling in which every tenth patient in the list of patient who were attended in the two referral hospitals ( Mwananyamala and Rabinisia) from January to June 2016, were selected for the study. The study found that prescription is significantly influenced by modes of payment with more items prescribed to insured patients than patients with no insurance. The patients under insurance have excessive prescriptions, and some of them are prescribed as many as 8(0.5%) items per prescription. Proportion of polypharmacy is significantly high in patients with insurance as compared to patients with other modes of payment such as exemption and out of pocket which have moderate polypharmacy. Patients under out of pocket and CHF miss medications at high proportions. Patients under insurance are given significantly high portion of generic prescription as compared to other modes of payment. This is attributed to controls instituted by insurance (NHIF in this case) to dispense the medicines only in their generic names. Patients attended at public hospitals have high rate of polypharmacy than those who attended private hospital however in overall, prescriptions from private hospitals had more items prescribed compared to those from the public hospitals. It is therefore recommended that policy makers should redirect their strategies towards modes of payment which reduce financial risks in covering for healthcare as a means to universal health coverage strategy. In this case the mode which will cater for equity n health care is the presence of universal health insurance policy which will give prescribers equal prescription options to all patients.
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    Assessment of the role private security companies in crime prevention in Tanzania A case of Kinondoni District
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Saning’o, Noel
    Services of private security companies became increasingly available in the 1990s during the world economic change accompanied by the end of the Cold War. The collapse of the Soviet Union left out military expects and availability of Weapons stimulating ex-soldiers to establish PSCs as means of survival .This trend gained momentum from 1990, eventually came to be practiced in other part of the world, including Tanzania. The PSCs came into assistances of police in crime preventing in Tanzania especially for the propertied clientele who could afford the associated costs of security services. Specifically this study focused on the strategies applied by PSCs in crime prevention in Kinondoni, district the effectiveness of the strategies employed by PSCs in crime prevention and the challenges which the PSCs face in crime prevention. The data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained by interviewing security guards clients of PSCs, official of PSCs and police officers .The secondary data was obtained by interviewing security guards clients of PSCs, officials of PSCs and police officers. The secondary data was obtained by reviewing. Written reports and other materials such as books, dissertations, journals and articles relevant to the study. Strategies applied by PSCs are a product of advanced technology including secret alarm button installed in each guarded station which basically when clicked sent information to main command room Which will direct a quick responder vehicle to the area . The police will be informed immediately for legal action as well. The study also found that mutual cooperation between the police Force and PSCs was healthy and effective. Among the challenges is low level of motivation to guards. Guards are relatively poorly paid without health insurance food, incentives and promotion. The study recommends for government to monitor the entire operation of PSCs in the country especially to make sure they operate according to laws of country.
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    Assessment of the effects of governance foreign direct investment and foreign and in the economy of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Gosbert, Beda
    Most nations often regard foreign direct investment as potential tool for economic growth EDI inflow supplements Domestic savings that are the main driving force of an economy in an economy domestic savings interacts with other variables to promote economic prosperity. These other variables are incorporated in the study through a simultaneous equation model. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of Governance Foreign Direct investment and Foreign Aid in the economy of Tanzania. A six stochastic equations econometric model was postulated for the purpose and time series data for the period of 1995-2018 was utilized. Model parameters were estimated by Two Stage Least Square Estimation technique after first differencing and logarithmic transformation of the original variables. The results indicated that effects of governance in on the economy were reflected in three equations of the model .These were the consumption. Export and exchange rate equations. As regards foreign aid its effect s were noted in their import and Gross Domestic product equations in the case of foreign Direct investment the results indicated a negative effect in the Capital formation equation. The study was concluded by stressing on the necessity of strengthening institutional policies in the struggle to completely eliminate corruption that retards economic growth. It was also recommended that there should be a committed drive to local industries that will enable Tanzania to flourish in the export marker last but not least it was stressed that it is only industrialization that will rescue Tanzania from being reliant on external aid that fuel external debt.
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    Factors influencing household investment decisions in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Ndabagoye, Nancy Ken
    The growth in the access to financial services can enable households to invest in human capital through education and physical capital through involving in different economic activities such as agriculture or expansion of business leading to higher future income hence growth. However, in Tanzania this has not been the trend most of the household choose to forgo present investment which will yield future income but instead utilize this advantageous situation for consumption purpose such as increasing household assets or covering for unnecessary expenditures. Using cross-sectional data which were collected as the fourth wave in the series of Fin Scope Tanzania surveys 2017 the study analyses the factors influencing household investment decisions. A total sample of 9, 459 households were used to analyse this study, where we captured household investment from saving behaviour of the household heads. Descriptive statistics show that only 15% save for investment purposes. Econometric analysis shows that age, gender, secondary and university level of education, household in rural areas, ownership of land and access to informal financial services significantly determine the influence of access to financial services on household investment. This suggests that the Government needs to expand access to finance, among other factors that will motivate more households to invest in various sectors through different such as reducing loan interest rates in banks and also reduce some of the restrictions that limit investment, example bureaucracy.
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    Impact of knowledge, attitudes and practices on voluntary testing centers regarding HIV in West district Zanzibar
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Khamis, Mayasa Ali
    The study assessed the impact of knowledge, attitudes and practices on Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centers regarding HIV in West District, Zanzibar. Mainly quantitative approach was employed with a sample size of 397. Open and closed ended questionnaire were administered to respondents covering a total of 397 sample size. For qualitative part of the study, interviews were carried out to complement with the data/ findings collected using quantitative approach. More than three quarters of the respondents were at the age between 20 and 30 years with more than two thirds being single and about one quarter married. Findings show that majority of the respondents had high levels of education with those who have tertiary education constituting more than three quarters followed by secondary education. There was almost a balance between rural and urban residents among the respondents. Respondents who ever attended VCT services were found to have more knowledge on HIV/AIDS compared to those who never attended. They know much about the meaning of HIV as well as how it is transmitted from one person to another and even possibility of HIV transmission from mother to child at various stages during child bearing. Regarding to attitudes towards HIV, research findings also revealed a significant difference between those who attended VCT and those who never attended VCT and those who never attended. Those who ever attended VCT had positive attitudes on caring and living with HIV infected person more than those who never attended. Also, they have negative attitudes towards having unsafe sexual intercourse including having sexual intercourse with many partners or having it without using protection like condoms. Knowledge on HIV/AIDS is meant to change the individual’s attitude which in turn is expected to shape the indivudual’s practice. Research finding shows that those individuals who ever received services from VCT centers have good practices regarding to HIV compared to those who never attended VCT. Individuals who ever attended VCT have tested for HIV at high frequency compared to those who never attended VCT. In addition to that, those individuals who ever VCT services are more cautious on having risk sexual intercourse, for example, having it while drunk or having it with someone who is drunk. Also, they use condoms much often when having sexual intercourse compared to those who never attended VCT.
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    Education and households saving behaviour in Tanzania: An empirical investigation
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Kato, Erick Elizeus
    Household’s saving are an essential constituent of national savings and remains essential to economic growth and poverty alleviation across the world and specifically for many developing countries. Household formal saving help to accumulate capital stocks that lead to increase in investment; consequently leading to economic growth. This study examine education and household saving behaviour in Tanzania with specific aim to; (i) Establish effect of education on household’s saving behaviour in Tanzania; (ii) Establish the effect of other socio-economic and demographic factors on household’s saving behaviour in Tanzania, and (iii)Assess ways in which households in Tanzania saves. The study uses secondary data obtained form Tanzania Fin Scope survey of 2017. A sample of 4348 adults (individuals of 16 years and above) households in draw from the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect households’ information. The study employs Multivariate Probit model to analyse the effects of education as well as the effect of other factor variables on households saving behaviour in Tanzania. The motive of this study is impelled by the fact that there are low levels of literacy as well as low savings in the formal and semi-formal financial institutions. The study results reveal that education level, income, location, access to credit, gender of the households head, formal employment as well as household size influences households saving behaviour in Tanzania. Government should incorporate financial knowledge in the curriculum as well as boosting education levels so as to lower illiteracy level, this will help to increase saving levels in Formal Financial Institutions. (FFIs) and Semi Formal Financial Institutions (SFFIs). Households should participate in income generating activities so as to earn income, this will help raise levels of saving. Also, government should avail more employment opportunities especially in the formal sector in order to raise the levels of savings both FFIs and SFFIs. Government as well as the commercial banks should also strive to increase provision of credit to households so as to raise its accessibility and eventually raise the levels of savings in FFIs and SFFIs. Lastly, households should be encouraged to have lower family size by adopting family planning techniques so as at least to boost level of savings.
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    Financial literarcy and households investment choices in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Manzi, Maisara Frank
    In today's world financial environment has become advanced and complex thus individuals are challenged with broad range of financial and investment decisions. In Tanzania there is an increase in financial inclusion. However, the knowledge on the level of financial literacy and how it contributes to the investment choice and decisions for individuals and households is scanty. Using Fin Scope survey data of 2017, this study examined the effect of financial literacy on household's choice of investment in Tanzania. Specifically, it determined the level of financial literacy and its determinants among households in Tanzania and established the association between financial literacy and investment decisions at household level. The study used supreme feasible elements namely financial knowledge, behavior and attitude to determine the level of financial literacy. It further employed probity and multinomial probity models in order to examine factors influencing financial literacy and establish the association between household investment decisions respectively. Regarding the first objective, results reveal that there is low level of financial literacy among respondents. Further, education level (primary and secondary), gender, source of information, risk attitude and location positively determine household level of financial literacy and the coefficients of variables were statistically significant. Moreover the results indicate that financial literacy and household investment choices are positively related, however, financial literacy found to have significant effect only on agriculture investment. The study results imply that household heads with high financial literacy have higher probability of making proper investment therefore; the government should institute education policies that incorporate financial literacy so as to equip citizens with financial knowledge. Consequently this will lead to better understanding of investment matters.
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    The impact of external debt and external dept servicing on social service spending in Kenya
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Owino, Francis Onyango
    Mounting levels of external debt led to increased interest rate payments that may required the shifting of resources from one budget share in favour of debt repayment. This has an effect on the current and future welfare of the citizens of a country. This study assessed the impact of external debt and external dept servicing on social services (health and education) spending in Kenya for the period between 1980-2017. The study used the ARDL Bounds Testing Approach to determine the existence of a long run relationship and later estimated the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model. External debt and external debt service were found to reduce total expenditure on education and health while Gross Domestic Product per capita and inflation were found to reduce health and education spending. Dollar exchange rate was found to have a positive effect on social service spending. The study then disaggregated expenditure on health and education into recurrent and development expenditures with the intention of assessing the magnitude and direction of the dept burden of the disaggregated components. Results from recurrent spending in education and health were similar to those obtained from total spending in education and health. However, it was found that external debt service had a more devastating effect on development social service spending than on recurrent and total expenditure on health and education. External debt was found to have a positive impact on development6 spending on education and health. Depreciation of the Kenyan shilling was found to reduce development social service expenditure while Gross Domestic Product per capita was found to positively influence development social service spending. The study drew some policy implications with regard to the external debt burden. One of them is that the government needs to strike a balance between borrowing vis-a-viz debt service spending. With regard to the exchange rate, external debt should not be dollar denominated but should be acquired in a mixture of currencies to reduce the risk of a single currency denominated external debt.
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    Governance and the quality of imported products in Tanzania: the case of Dar es Salaam City
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mbega, Mwalimu Kassimu
    Developing countries are experiencing high level of imported products as a result of free trade and globalization. The products originate from various countries across the world, mostly from Europe and Asia. This scenario is caused by measures put forward towards reduction of trade barriers, various trade agreements and the globalizing influence of associations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). Despite of presence of Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS) as Regulatory Authority for quality control in the country, still the number of substandard imported products increased for the past five years at an average of about 5.3 percent (NBS, 2015). The central objective of this study was examining the role of governance on quality of imported goods in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at examining the influence of institutional setup, laws and regulations as well as corruption on the quality of the imported products. A total of 200 consumers of imported products in Dar es Salaam were surveyed using a well-structured questionnaire to answer the intended objectives. The study employed log it regression approach to examine the role of governance on quality of imported products. Suitability of the approach is attributed to the binary nature of the dependent variable with the value of 1 if the quality of imported product is good and 0 if otherwise. Findings revealed that corruption is significant negatively related to the quality of the imported products. However, institutional setup and laws and regulations were not found significant in explaining the quality of the imported products. Therefore, this study recommends that there should be strong measures to control corruption practices especially regarding the importation of the products. These measures should include strategies that will monitor imported products, ensure conducting of quality checks and remove rooms for providing and receiving corruption. Furthermore, strong punishments need to be enforced against all people who involve themselves with corruption, who eventually jeopardize the quality of the imported goods.
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    The role of Computerized Management Information System in Project Performance: case of national Service Corporation Sole’s Argi-Machinery Project, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Omary, Razack Mohamedi
    Following the desire for increased competitive advantage amidst market shift, many have become project –oriented and technology forms a basis for project planning, monitoring and decision making. Although use of computerized Project Management Information System (PMIS) is well established in the developed world, the adoption in most of the developing countries (Tanzania included) has been slow until recently. Despite the use, it still uncertain as to what extent locally developed PMIS might have contributed to project performance. The current study aimed at examining the contribution of a locally programmed PMIS in the performance using the Tanzania’s National Services Corporation Sole’s Agri-Machinery Project As Case. The study specifically assessed the level of PMIS utilization, its efficiency and applicability. The data were gathered from key informants (system users) and clients through questionnaires and personal observation methods. The results indicated that utilization of the local PMISA (Workflow Robot) at the study sire was reported to be very low, thought there were generally satisfaction by clients with the service delivered. The most of the project information had been handled manually in hard flat files. The use of PMIS had no significant influence on the project performance (Chi square test :p=0.506. unreliable power supply, unstable network connection instability and limited internet speed, lack of proper of data backup system and unfriendly functionality of the Workflow Robot, were the main challenges reported to hinder the full used of the system. The study recommends that for the Agri-machinery project need an improved, comfortable (user friendly) system operated under reliable and high speed network environment. The PMIS users need training to keep them updated with the technology