Masters Dissertations

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    Assessment of school boards’ capacity in managing secondary schools’ financial expenditure in the context of fee free education in Tanzania: a case of Mbarali district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-10) Chuma, Herman
    The study assessed the capacity of school boards in managing secondary schools’ financial expenditure in the context of Fee Free Education (FFE) in Tanzania, using a case study of Mbarali district. The study sought to attain three specific objectives, namely: examining the financial expenditure supervision capacity of the School Boards; assessed how the School boards were involved by the school management in managing the schools’ financial expenditure and finally determine the measures that could be instituted to improve the School Board performance in managing schools’ financial expenditure. The study was informed by the systems theory of management advanced by Bertalanffy (1950). This is basically a qualitative research approach study that employed a case study research design. It was conducted in four secondary schools sampled from Mbarali district. The sample size composed 45 participants who were obtained through purposive and convenient sampling techniques. These included a District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO), four heads of schools, four School Board Chairpersons, 12 School Board Members and 24 teachers. The data were collected through interviews, focus group discussion and documentary reviews. The collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicated that the School Boards had the capacity for managing the school fund expenditure in their localities. Although school Boards were facing inadequate budget allocated in the schools, they demonstrated the capacity to generate extra school income through contributions from educational stakeholders, fund raising and school income generating projects. Moreover, the findings showed that the School Boards were actively being involved by the School management in managing financial expenditures. The modalities of participation ranged from involvement in the budget preparation, tendering procedures, financial report preparations, supervision of school development activities, and signatories of financial expenditures. The study recommends that the government has to review the capitation grants sent to schools in order to meet the planned school budgets. Moreover, the School Boards have to be given the mandate to reallocate capitation grants according to the needs and priority of the schools.
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    The relationship between student’s entry qualifications and Ordinary Secondary Education Academic Achievement in Kilombero District in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Nono, F. A.B
    The relationship between student’s entry qualifications and Ordinary Secondary Education Academic Achievement in Kilombero District in Tanzania Fabian Albert Buhonya Nono Master of Arts (Education) University of Dar es salaam, School of Education 2020 This study explored the relationship between student’s entry qualifications and ordinary secondary education academic achievement in kilomnbero district in Tanzania with the following objectives (i) to determine the relationship between PSLE results and secondary academic achievement, (ii) to examine views of teachers and students on competencies of pupils enrolled in secondary schools and (ii) to determine school factors that influence secondary school academic achievement. Being guided by the Meaningful Learning Theory by Ausubel, the study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches with concurrent embedded design. Stratified random and purposive samplings were employed to obtained the sample of the study. Primary data collection was conducted through semi- structured interview, questionnaires, focus group discussion and documentary reviews from 264 secondary school students, 50 secondary school subject teachers, six heads of school and six academic masters/mistresses. Others were two education officers for primary and secondary education in Kilimanjaro District. Secondary data used sample of 1680 of 2327 (72.1%) pupils for PSLE results similar to secondary school students for CSEE results. SPSS V.20 and MS-Excel (2007) software were used to analyze quantitative data while applying Pearson product moment and spearmen rank order techniques for quantitative data and miles. Huberma and saldana (2014) model of data analysis for qualitative data. The findings showed that Kiswahili subject 0.821 correlation coefficient signifying strong correlation as compared to other subjects (English, science, mathematics, and arts subjects) which had weak correlation. However, the overall correlation coefficient indicated 0.686 signifying strong moderate correlation. Furthermore, findings revealed that assessment used in PSLE was ineffective to produce competent students for orientation in secondary education. Also findings showed that some students who scored below minimum admission requirements were enrolled in secondary education. Science subjects were performed well in CSEE as compared to art subjects. Furthermore, some schools placed students in classes according to their level of performance. The findings indicated that motivation, discipline, commitment, school resources influenced secondary school academic achievement. The study concludes that entry qualification alone was insufficient to be a good predictor of secondary academic achievement. This study recommends that efforts need to be made for reviewing entry qualifications, changing PSLE assessment procedure with additional criteria like discipline, talents, to supplement PSLE results. Finally, the study recommends a similar study to be conducted in other regions and reflect the study with different theory for replications of these findings.
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    Delayed completion of Master’s Degree programmes at the University of Dar Es Salaam: cases of School of Education and Business School.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Mwambogo, E. J
    Delayed completion of Master’s Degree programmes at the University of Dar Es Salaam: cases of School of Education and Business School. Emelia Jailo Mwambogo Master of Arts (Education) University of Dar es salaam, School of Education, 2020 This study investigated delayed completion of master’s degree programmes at the university of Dar es salaam: cases of school of education and business school. The study was guided by three objectives. First, to examine the factors contributing to delayed completion of master’s programme. Secondly, to examine the mechanisms and role of supervisor’s feedback in completion of masters’ programme and thirdly to examine views of students and supervisors on possible solution to improve completion rate of master’s programmes. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research approaches with case study research design. The study sample size was 220 participants which included 160 master’s students and 60 research supervisors. Stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed to select the sample of supervisors and students (supervisees) to be included in the study. Methods used for data collection were questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews. Quantitative data were analysed by the assistance of SPSS software where Chi-square was computed to find the differences in students’ views of the factors contributing to delayed completion of master’s programmes and qualitative data were analysed thematically. The study found that factors contributing to delayed completion of master’s programme were student related factors, supervisor-related factors and institution- related factors. For instance the inability of student to write different chapters of research report, the study revealed that inability of student to select research topic and failure to state the research problem, lack of students commitment and readiness to so their research, financial constraints, family responsibilities and poor time management among masters students are factors inherent of students themselves. The study further revealed that, supervisors contributed to delayed completion of masters’ studies of their students through delayed and non-constructive feedback provided by the supervisors, lack of enough recent research reading books on the university library and limited access to materials in the internet, presence of unnecessary bureaucratic processes in improving the research proposal, and processing of research permit. Further analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant difference of 0.05 between the male and female masters students’ on factors for their delayed completion. The study concluded that student-related factor are explained in terms of their shortfalls in research methods courses while supervisor – delayed factors are basically caused by supervisors’ delayed or non-constructive feedback as such students either spend long time waiting for feedback or get discouraged to concentrate on their work. The study recommended that research methods courses should be taught in practical way that equip students with adequate and relevant research writing skills, supervisors should provide timely constructive feedback and the institution should have enough research facilities that accommodate all courses within the university.
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    The relationship between Emotional Intelligence and stress level among Secondary School Students with Albinism in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Mwala, G
    The relationship between Emotional Intelligence and stress level among Secondary School Students with Albinism in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania. George Mwala Master of Social Psychology. University of Dar es salaam, School of Education, 2020 This study investigates the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress level among students with albinism. It was guided by three research objectives. Firstly, to determine levels of emotional intelligence among SWA. Secondly, to examine levels of stress among SWA, and thirdly, to explore the magnitude of relationship between emotional intelligence and stress levels among SWA. The bar- on model of emotional intelligence and the transactional model of stress and coping guided the study. The study used a quantitative research approach and utilized the correlation design. Probabilistic sampling through stratified and single-stage cluster sampling techniques was used to select areas and respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 80 respondents and data was analysed descriptively by using SPSS software version 24 by running percentage, frequency and mean to determine the levels of emotional intelligence and stress. Furthermore, data were analysed inferentially to explore the strength of the correlation between EI and stress levels in its dimension through Spearman rank order. The results revealed that the majority of the students with albinism had the highest level of emotional intelligence 69.25%, 25.5% had moderate level and 5.25% scored the lowest level. In stress level, 52.6% had the highest level of the stress, 37.53% had moderate while 21.48% had the lowest level among students with albinism. Nevertheless, there was weak positive and negative magnitude of relationship between EI and stress levels in its dimensions for students with albinism. It implies that in the increase of each unit in EI, the stress level decreased in small unit depending on the domains correlated. The study conclude that students with albinism in secondary schools had the highest level of emotional intelligence having an average of 3.2 while, on stress, students with albinism had a moderate level of the stress with an average of 2.6. The magnitude of the relationship between EI and stress level in its dimensions was weak and it was not statistically significant. The study recommends that education stakeholder should plan and provide training on emotional intelligence and stress among students in order to help them to cope with various life aspect, also, counseling programme should be strengthened in schools to assist students with the highest level of stress and the lowest level of emotional intelligence.
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    Participation of secondary school biology Teachers in professional leaning communities in Dodoma region Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Chalo, Pamela
    The purpose of this study was to asses participation of secondary school biology teachers in professional learning communities (PLC) in three districts of Dodoma region namely Dodoma City Kongwa and chamwino districts. Specifically the study identified activities conducted in profession learning communities; assessed the participation of biology teachers in PLS; and examined challenges facing biology teachers for participation in PLC. The study was guided by situated learning theory (SLT ) and employed quantitative research approach using cross sectional survey research design . A total of 48 public secondary school and 15 private secondary schools were involved from which 119 biology teachers and 39 heads of schools were selected . Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents of the study and data were collected using questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in which chi-square test at significance level of 0.05 were used. Findings revealed that there were a number of PLC activities which were not conducted equally by biology teachers as there were a popular activities which were departmental meeting sharing teaching resources and sharing ideas about classroom practices. Activities which were least conducted are improvisation of teaching aids and discussing biology contents. In terms of teachers participation in PLC findings revealed that most of teachers participated in PLC, also there were no significance difference between PLC participation and teachers gender age education qualification, work experience also between rural and urban districts. However the findings showed that there were significant differences in PLC participation between private and public school biology teachers. Lastly in case of challenges shortage of time, lack of awareness and knowledge about PLC lack of commitment among teachers on PLC were the main constrains for teachers to participate in PLC as the result other PLC activities were not conducted that by teachers and some of teachers were participation in PLC regardless of their differences in gender, age, education qualification, work experience and district location (urban and rural) ,though private school teachers participated more in PLC compared to public school teachers. However there is minimal interaction with neighbour school. I was recommended that heads of school. and teachers should be aware of the importance of having PLC in their schools . This needs to be accompanied by having PD courses pre-service training and provision of PLC guide to both government and private secondary school so that all activities could be conducted relation to their teaching and learning environment. Besides Government school administration should reserve enough time for teachers to participate in PLC activities for instance heads of
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    Challenges associated with recruitment and retention of science teachers in public secondary schools in Kinondoni Municipality
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Baruti, Saidi Issa
    This study explored the challenges associated with recruitment and retention of Science teachers in public secondary schools in Kinondoni Municipality. The specific objectives of the study were to: Identify recruitment strategies of Science teachers in public secondary schools in Kinondoni Municipality. Identify challenges associated with recruitment and retention of Science teachers in public secondary schools and examine the effects of recruitment and retention of Science teachers in public secondary schools. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods informed by case study design. Interviews were used to collect quantitative data questionnaires for quantitative data while documentary review was used to collect quantitative data. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS computer programme version 16 and qualitative data were subjected to content analysis: The results were organized and presented into tubular from graphs and charts. The findings identified recruitment strategies such as online recruitment by central government through advertisement, short contract terms of services and use of license teachers. The finding also revealed challenges of recruitment such as mismatch between expectation and reality in the allocation of Science teachers removing of ghost workers and certifying certificates, teachers deployment and availability of other opportunities .The findings revealed the challenges of retention of Science teachers such as lack of incentives due to teaching overload, low investment in Science teachers fewer opportunities to career development, lack of reward and compensation. The findings revealed effects of recruitment and retention in teaching and learning were poor efficiency of science teachers, poor student performance and threat to lack of science teachers in the future .It was recommended to recruiting and retaining science teachers to ensure that teaching and learning facilities, salary structures, rewarding system are adequately addressed to solve the crises.
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    Influence of using teaching and learning, materials in learning English subject in public primary schools in Liwale District Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2018) Costantine, Paskazia
    This study aimed at assessing the influence of using teaching and learning materials in learning English subject in public primary schools by focusing on three objectives. Identifying the availability of teaching and learning materials in the teaching and learning of English language in primary schools. Assessing the use of teaching and learning materials in the teaching and learning of English in primary schools and examining how the availability and use of teaching and learning materials contribute in English language learning in public primary schools .The study employed qualitative research approach and a multiple case study research design. Purposive sampling techniques were employed to arrive at a sample size of six schools and 73 respondents who included 60 pupils, six English language teachers, six head teachers and one District primary Education Officer Open ended questioners semi structured interviews and observation methods were used to collect data which were later analyzed using content analysis. The findings show the available different teaching and learning materials in primary school. The mainly available teaching and learning materials are English Language textbooks , chars and drawings real objects and pictures and the more frequently used materials include English language textbooks and pictures .However ,teaching and learning materials were not effectively used because either they were absent or not enough due to big class sizes. Besides, the study revealed that teaching and learning materials had a positive role to learners in terms of raising learners’ motivation improving retention of the learned skills by pupils, drawing learners’ attention and interest for learning and proved visual stimulation to learners. The study concludes that teaching and learning English language in public primary schools cannot influence the achievement of pupils learning outcomes if there is little or very minimal use of teaching and learning materials. Finally the study recommends to the government through its relevant authorities to encourage teachers to improvise and use effectively the teaching and learning materials to achieve the goals.
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    Contribution in –service training to improving administrative skills of public secondary School heads; A case of Mbeya Rural in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Mwasile, Oberd
    The study assessed the contribution of in-service training to improving school heads administrative skills specifically in Mbeya rural district in Tanzania. The study employed a qualitative research approach. It was led by four specific objectives. Namely to find out in service training programmers conducted in Mbeya rural district to improving administrative skills of school heads to find out administrative competences offered to school heads through in-service training and examine school head’s views on the contribution of in-service training to the improvement of administrative skills in Mbeya rural and to explore the ways of making INSET, Programmes more potent to improving school heads administrative skills. The study sample consisted of 33 participants that are 15 SSBCM, 10 DMM, 5SSH, 2QAO and 1DEO and the sampling strategies employed was purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi structured interview and documentary review. The findings reveal that in-service programmers were conducted in Mbeya rural district to school head to improving administrative skills, it was found that administrative competences offered through in-service training programmes to school heads were project, planning, financial management, academic management and record and information management .Also, it was revealed that in service training had a greater contribution to school heads since it enables them to acquire kills ad knowledge for planning organizing, coordinating and budgeting. Further it was found that setting enough financial budgets, selecting high quality instructors, identifying specific skills, avoiding subjectivity and favouritism in selecting participants and making in service training a continuous process could make INSET more potent. it was recommended that the Ministry of Education and Science and Technology should make greater efforts to organize a continuous and sustainable in-service training on administrative competences for heads of secondary school
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    Instructional methods in teaching of speaking skills in English language in advanced level secondary education in Ilala Municipality
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Emmanuel, Nanai
    This study examined instructional methods in the teaching of speaking skills in English language in advanced-level secondary education in Ilala Municipality. The study sought to achieve three objectives: To explore English subject teachers' perception on the teaching of speaking skills in English language in advanced-level secondary education, examine teachers' instructional practices in the teaching of speaking skills in English language in advanced-level secondary education and to explore the challenges facing the teaching of speaking skills in English language in advanced-level secondary education. The study employed qualitative research approach and a case study design. Purposive sampling was used to select three public advanced-level secondary Schools and 62 participants were involved in the study including three heads of school, three academic masters/mistress, eight English subject teachers and 48 form six students. The data collected through interview, observation, documentary review and focus group discussion methods were subjected to thematic analysis. The findings of the study revealed that English subject teachers had different perception towards the teaching of speaking skills. Four out of eight teachers perceived the teaching of speaking skills as essential in teaching and learning while other four out of eight teachers perceived the teaching of speaking skills as a most difficult component in language teaching. Moreover, the findings revealed that discussion and presentation as well as questions and answers are the most common instructional practices in the teaching of speaking skills. Furthermore findings revealed challenges facing the teaching of speaking skills such as limited authentic teaching and learning materials, limited regular in-service training for English subject teachers and limited supportive environment towards speaking of English language. Similarly low students' self-motivation and commitment towards speaking English language ad well as limited oral assessment. The study concluded that English subject teachers' perception may influence the teaching process of developing speaking ability of learners. The manner in which discussion and presentation vas well as questions and answers activity were conducted may not render students opportunities to practice speaking English language to communicate. Teaching of speaking skills so as to develop students' ability to communicate using English language becomes less affective due to challenges facing the teaching of speaking skills. The study recommends that in order to improve the teaching of speaking skills, there should be ongoing provision of in-service training for English subject teachers to equip them with knowledge and skills to teach speaking skills. In addition English
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    Problems of science teaching in primary schools in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 1977) Besha, Moses Paul
    This study investigated problems encountered in teaching science in primary schools in Tanzania, being a case study Arumeru district. In particular the study investigated the following aspects of science teaching all of which are considered important in teaching the subject: the teachers’ understanding of the primary science syllabus i.e its objectives, content ect; and whether the time allocated for science teaching is sufficient to cover the syllabus adequately. Also whether evaluation of both the programme and pupil achievement is done and whether teachers find the syllabus easy or difficult to teach. Other aspects included problems, if any, experienced in teaching science in Swahili. Also the availability of facilities, equipment, apparatus, books and other reading materials in science. The study also investigated the teachers’ science background, whether teachers receive in-service courses and seminars on science teaching. Three methods were used to collect information. These were a questionnaire – the main instrument used, interview with teachers and district education officials and thirdly observation schedule. The questionnaire covered most of the aspect investigated, while interviews were meant together information on aspects not covered in the questionnaire and some data n the teachers. Observations were made of the equipment and apparatus available in the schools and of actual teaching sessions. The findings showed that primary science is still plagued with several problems. Most teachers did not understand the primary science syllabus. Teachers often devote little time to science teaching because of a heavy teaching load per week in many subjects. In addition where as evaluation of pupils’ achievement appeared to be done frequently by teachers, evaluation of the science syllabus itself had not been done since it was introduced back in 1973.Many teachers appeared to find the science syllabus difficult to teach; in particular the use of Swahili as the medium of instruction appeared to pose problems in teaching primary science. The chemistry and physics sections of the syllabus seemed to be ones teachers felt most difficult to teach. There were very scarce facilities, equipment and apparatus in the schools. Most teachers in the study reported that none or less than quarter of the required equipment and apparatus were available in their schools. In addition, however, teachers did not make use of resources available in their areas. Thus for example, few teachers made their own teaching materials and few appeared to borrow equipment and apparatus from other institution having them. Furthermore, equipment and apparatus found in the schools were often underutilized if not completely unused. Similarly there appeared to be very few text books and other reading materials for both teachers and pupils. The shortage of equipment, apparatus books and
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    Assessing the contribution on-job training programmes for primary school teachers to pupils’ performance in Mtwara, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Kapushi, Nesia
    This study assessed the contribution of on-job training programmes for primary school teachers to pupils’ performance in Mtwara, Tanzania. Literature had shown that a number of teachers and not their knowledge of the subject matter such as the ability to develop new knowledge, application knowledge, reflection and consolidation of teaching topic to pupils have been used to measure the performance of pupils. The study employed a mixed research approach and case study design to achieve the purpose. Data were collected (through interviews and questionnaires) from regional and district education officials, project coordinators as well as trained teachers. The research has revealed that the teaching profession in Mtwara is challenged with various issues including increasing workloads due to education reform, low and infrequent teacher remuneration, lack of professional recognition, poor working conditions, lack of accountability and scarce professional development opportunities. However, the training programmes have substantially improved pupils’ performance in Standard Seven Leaving Examination outcomes in the region a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) computed by SPSS outputs (P>0.05) showed a positive correlation between the number of trained teachers through in-service arrangement and the performance of pupils in their Standard Seven Leaving Examinations. Strategically planned pedagogical programmes to backstopping trainees is recommended for remedial improvements of teachers for an adequate understanding of subject and curriculum knowledge, teaching beliefs and teaching practice. It is also recommended that a detailed study should be conducted on how the materials used in training reflect teachers’ training needs and how governmental institutions participate in their preparations.
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    The roles of school boards in conflict management in secondary schools in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Ramadhani, Nassoro
    Various strategies of managing teachers’ conflicts in public secondary schools are growing in Africa. However, little is known on the roles played by school board members in resolving conflicts among teachers in secondary schools. The study adopted a multiple case study design, in which the qualitative research approach was used. The study was conducted in four public secondary schools in Kibiti district in Tanzania with a sample of 29 participants who comprise of one (1) District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO), twelve (12) school board members (SBMs), four (4) heads of schools (HoS) and twelve (12) teachers. Purposive sampling was employed to select participants. The data were collected using interviews and documentary review where content analysis was used to analyse data. The study revealed that the source of conflicts among teachers in secondary schools included unaccountability among teachers, differences in the levels of education, involvement of teachers in sexual relationship, lack of transparency in financial matters and favouritism from administrators. The study further found out that the involvement of school board members in resolving teachers’ conflicts in public secondary schools was extremely low. They were involved mainly in students’ conflicts and withdrawn from teachers ‘conflicts. However, there were few participants who reported few incidences where school board members involved. It was also reported that for the few schools that involved school board members in conflict resolution, mechanism applied to resolve such conflicts included: staff meeting advice by the school heads as well as discussion with the two conflicting parties. The study also found several challenges facing school board members in resolving teachers’ conflicts including among others: lack of transparency among heads of schools, financial problem, teachers’ undermining school board members (SBMs), school board members living far from schools, poor communication between schools and school board members (SBMs). The study recommended transparency in all school matters specifically in financial issues should be encouraged in order to reduce mistrust between teachers to reduce biasness which contributes to conflicts. Moreover, school board members should be involved in resolving conflicts among teachers. The study also recommends provision of trainings among school board members (SBMs) to reduce the inferiority complex.
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    Parental involvement in the education of children with disabilities in inclusive primary schools in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Nchimbi, Mary Samson
    This study investigated Parental Involvement (PI) in the education of children with disabilities in inclusive primary schools in Tanzania. It used Mbeya Region as a case study to represented other regions in Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified the activities that parents of CwDs are involved in the education of CwDs. It also explored the ways in which schools use to involve parents of CwDs in the education of those children. The study was further set to identify the challenges facing PI in the education of CwDs. The study was guided by the conceptual framework adopted from Epstein (2002). Qualitative approach was used where the case study method was deployed in order to achieve the purpose of the study. The target populations were parents, CwDs, teachers, heads of schools, members of school committees and Child Support Tanzania (CST) project coordinators. Purposive sampling, random purposive sampling and criterion sampling were used to obtain 67 participants. Semi structured interview, focus group discussion, non-participant observation and documentary review were used to collect data. Data were analysed qualitatively by employing thematic analysis. the study found that parents were involved in the area of identification and understanding of CwDs, CwDs’ learning at home decision making, enrolment of CwDs’ academic development, Actually, the revealed activities in which parents are involved were useful but not much operative. The effectiveness of involvement in those activities was inadequate in some schools. This happened because of some schools’ failure to create a welcoming environment that enables parents to get involved in the whole process of educating CwDs. identification and understanding of CwDs, CwDs’ learning at home, enrolment of CwDs and CwDs’ school performance gained much parents of CwDs’ involvement because were directly connected to CwDs. Also, the findings disclosed that teachers’ home visit, parents’ voices, PSGs, seminars and special events, as well as local government were the ways used to involve parents of CwDs in the education of CwDs. The way used were suitable PSGs, teachers’ home visit, and parents’ voices actively attracted the involvement of parents. However, seminars were uncommon and not adequate. Also, the use of local government was not actively responded by many parents in almost all the sampled schools. The study revealed disappointment of parents due to CwDs, low progress, community stigma about disabilities, burden of care needed by CwDs, reluctance of parents regarding having CwDs and lack of adequate resources to accommodate CwDs as among the challenges facing PI in the education of CwDs in inclusive primary schools. Most of the challenges found in this study were rooted from IE stakeholders who are CwDs, teachers, parents and community. The study concluded that, due to activities and ways used to involve parents of CwDs in the education of CwDs, parental involvement in the education of CwDs is practiced in inclusive primary schools though the practices are not much effective due to the challenges identified. The study recommended that, parents should be cooperative to teachers and schools should create a welcoming environment for parents to be involved in the education of CwDs. The Ministry of Education Science and Technology should authorize a compulsory representation of parents of CwDs in committees of inclusive schools in order to activate parents’ voices in inclusive schools committees.
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    Assessment of the status of primary schools as health promoting arena in Kigamboni district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Nunday, Elizabeth Joseph
    This study assessed the status of primary schools in Kigamboni district as health promoting area. four objectives guided the study, namely (i) To identify health promoting programmes existing in primary schools in Kigamboni, District (ii) To assess the likehood of relationship that exists in health programmes between public and privately owned primary schools in Kigamboni, (iii) To examine challenges facing primary schools when delivering Health Promoting Programmes (HPPs) and Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) and (iv) To recommend solutions for challenges facing delivery of HPPs and HPSs. The study used mixed methods research approach. A total of 212 respondents were selected through simple random sampling, purposive sampling and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using interview, focus group discussion, questionnaire and observation. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data by comparing means between public and private primary schools while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis in order to complete results from quantitative data sets. The findings revealed that there were differences in health promoting programmes identified in private and public primary schools. The findings further indicated that HPPs and HPSs are compromised by inadequate physical, human and financial resources in order. The study recommends that schools should have comprehensive HPPs guided by policies, supported by physical infrastructure, modelled by health education programmes conducted by trained practitioners and embraced by community linkages and networks.
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    Teachers’ beliefs and their espoused use of ICT in teaching and learnng science and mathematics in secondary schools in Kibaha district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Rimba, Catherine
    The purpose of this study was to examine “teachers’ beliefs about the use of ICT and their espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science (Physics, chemistry, Biology) and Mathematics in secondary schools’. The sample was selected from 15 secondary schools located in Kibaha district. The study employed cross sectional survey research design. The study aims to address the following objectives: to examine teachers ‘ beliefs about the use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics, to examine teachers’ espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics, to establish the relationship between teachers ‘beliefs about the use of ICT and their espoused used of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics and to assess the effect of teachers’ beliefs about ICT use in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics. Findings showed that teachers’ beliefs about ICT use depend on perceived ease of use in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics. Further, the perceived ease of use enhance espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning such as teachers use ICT as a tool that enhance, enrich and deepen teaching skills during teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics. Also there was a strong relationship between teachers’ beliefs about ICT use and their espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics through influential variables: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norms and technological complexity. Finally , teachers’ beliefs about ICT use were found to reinforces at secondary schools. Overall, the study concluded that teacher’s beliefs about ICT use depends on perceived ease of usewhich has effects on espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics at secondary schools. The government of Tanzania should make ICT training mandatory in teachers’ education colleges in order to enhance positive beliefs about ICT use and those beliefs indicate espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and MATHEMATICS. The study was carried out in Kibaha district secondary schools. There is a need for this study to be done in other districts in Tanzania so as relate the results that influencing teaches’ beliefs about the use of ICT and their espoused use of ICT in teaching and learning of Science and mathematics at secondary schools.
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    Governments fund allocation and institutional functioning of public secondary schools in misungwi district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Msuya, Stellah Joel
    This study exanibes government’s funds allocation and the institutional functioning of public secondary schools in Misungwi District. The specific objectives of the study were to examine how teaching and learning process are affected by the currect system of funds, examine how administrative functions are affected by the current system of funds allocation in secondary schools, determine the challenges associated with funds allocated in public secondary, and find out ways used by school heads to address the emerging challenges under the current system of fund allocation in secondary schools. The study used qualitative research approach and case study design whereby 61 participants were employed.these were 1 District secondary education officer, 5 school heads, 5 ward education officers ,10 teachers and 40 students who were obtained through interviews, focus group discussions and documentary review, and analysed through content analysis. The findings revealed that students had a conducive learning environment, comfortable teachers with high working morale and school examinations conducted timely. The study also established that school heads carried out administrative constraints as a challenge in paying overtime allowance to teachers. Producing utilities, facilitating teacher’s movement pay postal services administration of board meeting and inability to pay supporting staff. In order to curb emerging challenges encountered by the school heads from funds allocation modality, most of the participants identified two methods namely; funds re-allocation and alternative funding.In funds re-allocation school heads re-allocate funds basing on priority and ad-hoc activities while in alternative funding school heads received contributions from education stakeholders while parents contributed food for students. Moreover, findings indicated that school heads introduced school agricultural activities and established school managed shops where the enerated revenue were used to carry out school administrative functions. For a well-functioning school, the study recommends that there is a need for the government tp raise schools funds allocation. This will enhance efficiency on institutional functioning which will improve education standards and academic performance in schools for simplifying and hastening developments projects in public secondary secondary schools. The further studies can be conducted with similar topic using quantitative approach which captures large sample such as all public secondary schools located in districts for the purpose of making comparison using different research methods.
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    Teachers and Students perspectives on the Hiring of School Counselors in Public Secondary Schools: the case of Ilala Municipality in Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Frank, Sweetbert
    This study was set to investigate teachers and students’ perspective on the hiring of school counselor in public secondary schools as a strategy for strengthening the counseling services provided in schools. It was guided by three research objectives, namely: to establish the counselling needs services and the way they are managed: to explore the perspectives of teachers on the hiring of school counselors and finally to examine the perspective of students on the hiring of school counselors. The study employed phenomenological research design of qualitative approach. The study was confined to a sample of 74 participants from five selected secondary schools in Ilala municipality. These include 10 teacher- counselors, 10 class teachers, four head of schools, and 50 students. Data were obtained through semi-structured interview and focus group discussion (FGDs) thematic analysis was used in the analysis of data, in which themes were coded and extracted from interviews and focus group discussion. The findings revealed that students were exposed to variety of issues that demanded effective counseling services in schools, including socio-emotional challenges, lack of self-determination and early sexual behaviours; which were primarily addressed through initiatives of teacher-counselors. Consequently, the majority of teachers and all students who participated in the study recommended for the need of hiring of qualified school counselors to address the issues and challenges in schools professionally,. Moreover, the findings revealed that there were few teachers who recommended for less need to hire school counselors due to fear of prospective confusion in managing students and conflicts that are thought to emerge if the services are handled by personnel different from school teachers. The factors raised by teachers who recommended the hiring of school counselors include: professionalism on accountability. On the side of students, the problems, proactive intervention need, and accountability. On the side of students, the factors raised by teachers who counseling services, lack of trustworthiness and adequate time for problem exploration. It was then concluded that the prevailing state in schools exposed students to variety of challenges since the customary counseling services did not cover fully the needs of students. Furthermore, the recommendations by the majority of teachers and all students signified a high demand of hiring qualified school counselors in secondary schools. The study recommended a correlation study on the comparison between qualified counselors and para-professional counselors to be conducted to provide empirical evidence on the relative differences between the two. That would rationalize the necessity or otherwise, of the need to have qualified counselors in schools.
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    Exploring Stakeholders Perception on the Implementation of free Primary Education Policy in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Khamis, Moh’d Kombo
    The purpose of this study was to explore the stakeholders’ perceptions on the implementation of free primary education policy in Zanzibar. The objectives of the study were to establish the parent’s, teachers’ and pupils perceptions on the free primary education policy in Zanzibar, to examine how free primary educations policy increase access to pupils schooling in Zanzibar and third to determine the challenges in implementation of free primary education policy in Zanzibar. The study applied qualitative research approach and used case study design. The study also adopted CIPP(Context Input, Process And Product) model to explore the stakeholder perceptions of the implementation of free primary education policy in Zanzibar. The study was conducted in Zanzibar in Micheweni Disrtrict whereby five public primary schools were included. The study used purposive and snowballing sampling techniques in obtaining participants of the study . the study sample comprised of 70 participants including 20pupils, 20 primary school teachers, 5 head teachers, 13 parents, 10 truant pupils, 1 Regional Education Officer and I District education officers. Data were collected through observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The data were analyzed through content analysis strategy. The findings show that there were two different perception in defining FPE, the first one being the parents perceived FPE policy as an absolutely free education whereas all learning requirements for pupils are provided by the government and other believed that free primary education means free fees, whereby parents will not be paying school fees, but they are responsible for other education costs such as school uniform, stationaries, transport, health facilities and meals. Furthermore the findings indicated that, the free primary education provided in Zanzibar does not help many children in schooling especially those from poor families, vulnerable and orphans. Also, the study established that, to some extent FPE policy has increased access to pupils’ schooling in Zanzibar through abolition of school fees, providing free academic materials such as text books and exercise books to all pupils. It also emerged that, the e in order to improve learning and teaching process in Zanzibar, the government should provide adequate physical facilities instructional materials and other school needs. Likewise educational stakeholders and policy makers should educate stakeholders including parents on the importance of education to children’s future life so as to capture their participation in learning process.
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    Extracurricular activities and perceived academic self-efficacy in biology subject in secondary schools: a case study of Kigamboni Municipal Council
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Kiula, Wellu Daniel
    The study investigated the extracurricular activities (ECAs) and perceived academic self-efficacy in Biology subject in secondary schools sampled from Kigamboni Municipal Council. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of ECAs on the development of perceived academic self-efficacy. The specific objectives were to examine the effects of ECAs on the development of perceived academic self-efficacy (PASE), to establish the relationship between the level of perceived academic self-efficacy and performance in Biology subject and to determine the differences between the level of PASE of students who participated in ECAs and those who did not. The study employed a mixed method approach more inclined toward the use of quantitative approach with combination of qualitative approach. Concurrent embedded research design was employed using a sample size of 313 respondents. The sample size included 8 Heads of Departments, 7 sports and games teachers as well as Biology subject teachers were selected using purposive sampling while students were selected using both stratified and random sampling. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires, interview and documentary review. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions analysis were computed to analyze quantitative data while thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence between the ECAs and development of PASE but the quantitative data established that the variables were related. The study also revealed that there is a difference in Biology subject performances between students who participate in ECAs and those who did not. The study has concluded that there is a relationship between ECAs and development of PASE. Secondly, ECAs promote development of PASE in biology subjects through enhancing critical thinking skills, social relationships, confidence and persistence in the completion of academic activities. Thirdly, there is a positive relationship between the level of PASE and performance in Biology Subject. Lastly, students who participate in ECAs have high level of PASE than those who do not. The study provides three recommendations. Firstly, there is a necessity of policy makers to prepare clear parameter that will insist educational stakeholders to promote the use of ECAs as healthy step of student’s involvement in ECAs. Secondly, school organizations through sports and games departments should collaborate with teachers to promote and encourage students to participate in ECAs.
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    Career guidance and counseling practices in folk development colleges in Njombe region,Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mathew, Gabriel
    Career guidance and counseling practices in folk development colleges in Njombe region,Tanzania Gabriel Mathew MA (Applied Social Psychology) University of Dar es Salaam, School of Education, 2020 This was a study of Career Guidance and Counseling Practices in Folk Development Colleges in Njombe Region, Tanzania. The study specifically dealt with (i) identifying career guidance and counseling practices available in FDCs (ii) examining tutors' and students’ awareness on career guidance and counseling in FDCs (iii) assessing career guidance and counseling environment in FDCs and (iv) exploring challenges facing career guidance and counseling practices in 1 DC s and ways of addressing them. The study was guided by social cognitive theory' by Bandura. The study was conducted in FDCs in Njombe region. Purposive and Quota sampling were employed in getting 47 respondents, these included FDC Board members, FDC Principals, FDC tutors, FDC students and the surrounding community members who had children studying in FDCs. The research used qualitative approach informed by the case study design in order to achieve objectives of the study. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interview, observation and Focus Group Discussion. The collected data were analyzed by the use of thematic analysis in order to produce a report. The findings revealed that tutors were aware on CGC as a profession, some had skills on career counseling but not given the task of conducting CGC services; other tutors had no skills on career counseling. The task of providing CGC services was given to training coordinators who were also not skillful enough to provide the service as they lacked training on career guidance and counseling. The CGC environment in the FDCs was not in good quality as there were no rooms for career counseling, shortage of computers as compared to the available number of students; and other FDC had no internet services. The revealed challenges hindered CGC services in FDCs included unplanned career counseling activities, computer illiteracy among training coordinators, FDC economic constraints, parents and peer pressure in choosiim a student’s career, and economic problems among parents. The suggested ways of combating challenges included the plan for establishing modern programmes and buying modem machines, to involve the community in decision making and advertising the FDCs in the nearby school graduation ceremony and in the village meetings. The study’s conclusion is based on making career guidance and counseling a special unit in order to help more FDC students. It is recommended that the MoEST and the surrounding community should work together to help the funds: also the MoEST should implement ways of assessing CGC services in FDCs as recommended by the vocational education policy. FDCs were recommended to use small projects in providing training on career counseling to training coordinators and other tutors; also the frequent review of the FDC curriculum is recommend