PhD Theses

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    The prevalence of academic cheating in Tanzania Universities
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Muga, Peter Gershon
    This study investigated the prevalence of academic cheating in six selected Tanzania universities. It was guided by three objectives. Firstly, to examine the prevailing forms and techniques of academic cheating used by university students. Secondly, to identify the causes of academic cheating among university managements to curb academic cheating in universities. The theoretical framework that explain students’ academic cheating phenomenon was informed by the Planned Behaviors theory and the Social Learning theory. This study is located within a pragmatic research approach which utilizes a mixed methods research approach. It employed a survey research design within multiple cases to answer the three research objectives and questions. Data were collected from a total sample of 2588 respondents. Categorically, there were 2230 university students and 358 academic staff form six selected university colleges and universities in Tanzania. Four were public and two were private. Data was collected through questionnaires, focus group discussions and documentary review. Data were analyzed beginning with cleaning and screening. Quantitate data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) VERSION 19 and were presented in tables, figure and charts while qualitative data analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings revealed the following. First, finding unfold that there were cases of examination cheating were identified: Examination cheating committed by students and those committed by academic staff. Examination cheating committed by students include copying from other students, seeking help from fellow students during the exams, sitting closer to academically able students and hiding materials in toilets. Examination cheating committed by lecturers include leaking exam papers, selling examination, stealing copies of exam papers, among others Secondly the findings revealed three main causes of examination cheating: student related, lecturer related and institutional related causes. Student related causes were inadequate preparation, fear for discontinuation, poor time management and desire for high GPA, Lecturer related causes include incompetency, favoritism and limited time allocate for marking while institutional related causes include enrolment of large number of students against available resources and examination format. On measure taken to curb examination cheating, strengthening invigilation, Nullifications of examination results and termination from employment for academic staff. Finally, findings revealed that measures taken were effective and efficient but require review to meet the changing context of higher education This study recommends that higher education institutions should employ mullt- strategy approach that involve stakeholders in creating conducive environment for quality provision of education that prepares competent graduates with competitive skills needed in the labor market.
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    Health insurance contribution to expansion of health services access to poor households in Tanzania: Experiences from implementing community base health insurance schemes in six Districts
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Ndunguru, Moses January
    In Tanzania, health insurance has features as a potential welfare tool for expanding access to health services to all people and achieving goals of the Universal Health Coverage since 1993. This study examined health insurance contribution to expiation of health services access to poor households in Tanzania, using experience from community-based health insurance schemes operating in six districts. It specifically assessed trends of enrolment; efforts made to make health services available, affordable and acceptable; poor people’s perception of availability, affordability, and acceptability of services; and factors that facilitated and limited access to services. The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional research design involving a sample of 433 respondents who were selected purposively and randomly. Data were collected through 384 household survey questionnaires, 49 in -depth interviews, 24 focus group discussions, documentary review, and observation; and analysed descriptively and thematically. Findings indicated that the trend of enrolment was low and declining. Although schemes claimed to make health services available through sensitization programmes, raising user fees, strengthening health facility organs, and enrolment of the elderly, majority (54.4%) of the respondents were dissatisfied due to frequent shortage of drugs, limited number of accredited health facilities, absence of referral services, shortage of health workers, and equipment; unattractive benefit packages; mismanagement and unfriendly rules of the schemes; poor accountability; abusive language; exemption policy; expiration of cards, frequent increase in premiums and extra-payments; unclear definition of unit of households; unstable household income; high cost of care; and households’ negative perception of health insurance. To expand access to health services to the poor in Tanzania, there is a need for the government, policy makers, health insurance scheme managers, and health facility managers to provide education about health insurance and its benefits; improve quality of health services in the accredidited health facilities by ending a great problem of frequent unavailability of prescribed drugs, all unnecessary access barriers; and modify enrolment criteria to accommodate more groups in need.
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    Smallholder farmers’ perceptions and responses to agricultural production vulnerabilities in Tanzania: the case of Rufiji, Mbarali and Sumbawanga Districts
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Samwel, Peter
    This study examined smallholder farmers’ perceptions and responses to agricultural production vulnerabilities in Rufiji, Mbarali and Sumbawanga districts in Tanzania. It involved identification of the major agricultural production vulnerabilities among farming households, to assess smallholder farmers’ awareness and perception of agricultural production vulnerabilities, to examine smallholder farmers’ response mechanisms to agricultural production shocks and to intervention measures for addressing agricultural production vulnerabilities. The study employed mixed research methodology, using primary data collected from six villages. The villages were chosen from three districts in order to capture the diversity and enrich an understanding of local perceptions and responses to various shocks affecting smallholder farmers. Secondary data sources were also utilized. Primary data collection methods involved in this study were questionnaires, indepth interviews, focus group discussions, non-participant observation and transect walks. Secondary data were collected through documentary reviews. Overal study findings reveal that there are various sources of production shocks including rainfall variability, poor access to agricultural inputs, crop pests and diseases, land degradation and the conflicts between farmers and herders. The local people are highly aware of these sources of production shocks and their impact on household welfare. Thus farming households have adopted different response options such as agricultural intensification, income diversification and migration. Farmers recommended local policy and intervention strategies for supporting them such as facilitation of access to credit and subsidies, reinforcing and strengtherning informal social networks, supporting income diversification activities and introduction of crop insurance system. Other intervention strategies include introduction of participatory village land use plans, promoting information access and training to smallholder farmers and enhancing access to small-scale irrigation technologies. Based on these findings, this study recommends that policy makers and researchers should concentrate on understanding farmers’ perceptions in view of using local knowledge in the design and implementation of intervention strategies. The strength of farmers’ perceptions is that it is the outcome of farmers’ actual experience, and it is based on understanding of the local context. It is recommended that for further research, one such study may focus on a comparative study to assess the contribution of various coping strategies on the welfare of farming households. The current study has identified three broad categories of response strategies namely agricultural intensification, income diversification and migration. A rigorous research is needed to assess these alternative strategies and come up with the most suitable ones based on local contexts.
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    Determinants of gender mainstreaming in sexual and reproductive health: a case of Selected Family Planning and HIV and AIDS Projects in Malawi
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Jackson, Anthony Malunga
    The study examined gender mainstreaming determinants in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) especially Family Planning and HIV/AIDS projects in three districts in Malawi. The study had three objectives around (i) the influence of gender related laws and policies (ii) the preparedness of organisations and staff and (iii) the socio-cultural factors on gender mainstreaming strategy in Family Planning and HIV/AIDS projects. The study employed the convergent research design using a mixed methods approach to collect data using a survey (N=222), FGDs (N=14), in-depth interview with gender specialists (N=16), structured interviews with organisation staff (N=15) and individual interviews with community leaders (N=25). It was based on systems theory and rights centred approach. Overall, first objective findings showed that laws and policies at international and national level were indeed pre-requisite for gender mainstreaming in sexual and reproductive health. Largely, the laws are available, but are scarcely known and used by the organisations staff in the course of the design and implementation of the SRH projects. As a result, the laws have had no influence in the implementation of the projects. This was not consistent with the expectation of the projects that were intended to be implemented within a gender mainstreaming strategy and rights based approach. Secondly, on the second objective, it was found that both the organisations and the staff involved in the SRH projects were compromised in terms of embracing institutional gender culture and having adequate gender mainstreaming capacity respectively. As a result, the study established that the organizations staff did not do a gender analysis to understand the context of the SRH projects prior to the full implementation. This affected the opportunity for implementing gender transformative activities to challenge gender inequalities. The beneficiaries mostly got involved in initial project cycle activities like awareness rising than the expected whole project cycle involvement. Thus, participation and involvement was at tokenism level. The activities were largely Family
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    Credit use and small scale businesses perfomance: a case study of non-bank institutions' credit recipients in Dar es Salaam
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2005) Temba, Eulalia Isidor
    The study examined the influence of credit on the performance of small scale businesses in Tanzania. The two National Policies of Micro Finance and Small and Medium Enterprise Development have given a priority to the role of micro finance in development of the small-scale business development and the informal sector in specific. Thus the study took into consideration this national initiative of combining micro finance and small business development for economic growth. It was expected that, credit would be an enhancing factor in business performance. The sampled non-bank institutions were: The Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO), Promotion of Rural Initiatives for Development Enterprises (PRIDE) and the Mennonite Enterprise Development Associates (MEDA),all Operating in Arusha, Dar es-Salaam and Mbeya regions. Owner managers receiving credit from the Institutions for their businesses constituted our study sample. Credit use for performing different functions of the surveyed businesses was measured using both qualitative and quantitative measures. Production, advertising and selling functions of the businesses were measured against different credit counts taken. A case study design using survey method was used. Data analysis was done at three levels namely: the hundred and fifty respondents, eight in-depth case studies, and seven business clusters. A Credit Performance Model involving lending and borrowing costs, the implication of demand and supply credit and the savings of the owner managers was use to assist the researcher to arrive at empirical evidence for proving the research assumptions. The results evidenced a contribution of credit to the performance of the businesses. This had an implication that policy enforcement aiming at encouraging small businesses to make use of the existing micro finance window is crucial. It was further recommended that, household savings if properly mobilized might become a
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    Development of a sustainable network level pavement management system for trunk roads in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2002) Mushule, Nurdin Kassim Mustafa
    Over the years, engineers were mainly concerned with the design and construction of new roads. As a result, the world-wide expansion of road networks has resulted in roads being one of the largest public assets. Increasingly, there is a growing demand for preserving this very large asset at the time when funds for road maintenance and rehabilitation are scarce. Consequently, many road organisations in the world have developed pavement management systems (PMS) in order to utilise the available resources in most effective manner. However, a number of systems were developed without taking into account the needs and requirements of the implementing agencies. These systems tended to specify requirements, aimed at high-tech solutions that are often not sustainable. As a result many of them have been marginalised if not completely abandoned. The research presented in this thesis adopted a different approach by first defining needs and requirements of the implementing agency, after identifying the potential users. Based on this, a low cost data collection regime was designed and tested. In addition, the study compares the cost of data collection at different levels of data detail. Furthermore, the loss in data accuracy as the level of data detail progresses from very detailed level to higher Information Quality Levels has been investigated for types of surface defects found predominant in Tanzania. Furthermore, the data obtained from the field was used to specify maintenance standards that are appropriate for different situations in Tanzania. Finally, a method which will help practitioners to determine possible sustainability of a pavement management system has been suggested. The research concluded that, for the sustainability of a PMS, the methods proposed are within the means of the road agency and could be used to prepare annual work programmes and budget estimates. This in turn, would result in applying low cost, and hence sustainable, data collection methods to obtain the required road management information from a network level road management system.
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    The problem of using law by government officials in support of the course of development
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2001) Mchome, Sifuni Ernest
    In this work an attempt is made to show that throughout the history of this country several laws have been enacted, at the initiative of the Government, to support the cause of development. This phenomenon is deriving from the recognition that every society needs some kind of order in the execution or implementation of various aspects of development, be they social, economic or political. The execution or implementation of these aspects necessitates the establishment of a regularised system of governance backed by law among whose tenets are (i) the setting up of the governance structures, (ii) definition of rights and obligations, (iii) creation of institutions and definition and assignment of roles to them, (iv) control and punishment of deviance from role expectation, and (v) provision of justice in the management of the affairs of the society However, although laws have been enacted to serve the course of development and are to be followed by everyone, the institutions created to enforce them have sometimes failed to follow them and instead opted for shortcuts in the execution of developmental goals. These shortcuts have invariably resulted to adverse effects to the people and communities that are targeted by these institutions as was the case in respect of Operations Okoa Mkomazi in 1988 and Kazimzumbwi in 1998. My conclusion is that law breaking by government institutions and officials, who in the first place are expected to enforce the law, is anti-development and does not jibe well with the concept of development. In the long run, this attitude may only help to ruin the reputation of the country internationally. Measures must, therefore, be taken by supervisory bodies like courts of law and Parliament to prevent this from happening.
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    Household coping strategies for food security in hazardous areas of rural Tanzania: the case of Kagera Region.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2001) Kamugisha, Cosmas Aloys
    This thesis has signalled the ways in which indigenous knowledge, that provides the basis for much coping behaviour, and patterns of coping themselves, interact with official attempts at household food insecurity presentation and mitigation. A sensitive administration or a Non-Governmental organization has to be able to build on such foundations. More often than not, official recovery practice pay little heed to what ordinary peasants do. This work investigated the household coping strategies for food security in Kagera Region, situated in the North West of Tanzania, whereby 90% of the population is engaged in agricultural production. Main food crops include bananas, maize, beans, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, millet and sorghum. Cash crops are mainly coffee and tea. The coping strategies used by households in Kagera Region, entailed mobilization of resources which included using the market, the exercise of rights, calling upon obligations of other household members, kin, patrons, friends as well as theft or even violence. The objective was survival in the face of adverse events including the 1980s HIV/AII~S pandemic, the 1994 Rwanda and Burundi refugee influx, banana weevils and nematodes and the 1978/79 Iddi Amin war of aggression. The coping strategies are based on the totality of the households economic, social, political and environmental resources. Household food security in Kagera means when the household at all times has physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet the household member's dietary needs for a productive and healthy life. Unfortunately, policymakers at local level have paid little attention to household and village-based strategies for coping with food security. Rural households in hazardous areas have a capacity to cope with food insecurity. The methodology used to get the results was identifying two wards for each district of Ngara, Karagwe, Muleba and Bukoba Rural which were highly affected by the hazards. Then villages were selected from those wards and finally households. All the households in the selected villages were listed and stratified using the listing questionnaire. From each stratum or vulnerability measure, five households were selected using systematic simple random sampling starting with not vulnerable, moderately vulnerable, most vulnerable and very vulnerable. The sample survey had a total of one hundred and twenty households. There were listing and household questionnaires. The household questionnaire had five modules. The five modules were household particulars, household facilities, income generating activities, consumption and coping strategies. The population sampled was the peasant households and the method used as interviewing. The sampling procedure utilised under the probability or random based samples, was a representative of a large population of food insecure in Kagera Region. The survey was a one-off, that is, collecting current information on crosssectional basis. This form of data collection highlighted relationships between refugee influx, HIV/AIDS, banana weevils and nematodes, being food insecure and the coping strategies. Many coping strategies in Kagera Region have come under a variety of pressures which have reduced their range and efficacy. The influence of the market has improved some and eroded others. Nonetheless, coping strategies of all kinds have been crucial elements in understanding the vulnerability and designing interventions. The thesis indicates appropriate ways of improving household food security in sustainable ways. Comprehending the coping strategies is the bed-rock on which successful household food security depends and identifying the limits to and potential of the coping strategies is the basis on which household food security can be maintained. Cultivation is practiced by nearly all households in the rural areas of Kagera region. The availability of land and established social networks make cultivation the major coping strategy for food security at the preventive level. However, cultivation as a coping strategy by a household depends on circumstances and strategy, for production of both food and cash crops. Export-led development has greatly influenced cash crops production. Due to unequal exchange, declining terms of trade and increased risks, cash crops occasionally do not produce household food security growth through improved factor utilisation. Household food security has to go beyond micro-economic concentration on small farms. There is a need of studying the socio-economic constraints affecting the households at specific times. There is also a necessity of improving agricultural policies and investment plans to benefit rural households. This has to ensure that the framework of economic policies were favourable and maintenance of constant communication between authorities and technical experts at all levels as well as the peasants who will be involved.
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    Factors contributing to the gender gap in access to financial services among women owning micro and small enterprises in urban Tanzania: the case of selected institutions in Dar es Salaam region
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Msoka, Elizabeth Michael
    Various financial institutions engage entrepreneurs to access financial services for the growth of their enterprises. However, available literature shows that there exists gender imbalance in women’s owned MSEs access to financial services in Tanzania.This study explored factors that contribute to the gender gap in women’s owned MSEs access to financial services in Tanzania. The study is guided by two theories: the institutional theory and feminist theory. It also utilised a cross-sectional design that combines both qualitative and quantitative research approaches from a total sample of 350 respondents. The respondents comprised of: 40 officials within selected institutions, 300 women owning micro and small ventures in the study area as well as 10 key informants among ministry officials and women business associations. Both, purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. The study relied on data obtained through the use of questionnaires, interview guides, observation checklists and secondary data analysis. Overall, the study found that both individual and institutional factors contribute to the gender gap in women owned MSEs access to financial services. Evidently, more than a half of officers from selected institutions were neither aware nor conversant of the meaning of the 2000 Tanzania’s Women Development and Gender Policy (WDGP). This has contributed to the poor implementation of the policy which to large extent strives to redress gender gaps and inequalities between men and women. Further, the study found that negative perceptions of official working with institutions financing MSEs contributed to the limited number of women enterprises to access financial services. Managers and officials of selected institutions perceived women owning small and micro enterprises to possess less entrepreneurial attributes including: management experience, negotiations skills and risk-taking propensity. Negative perception towards women entrepreneurs has taken the form of lower rates of approval for loan applications. Further, the study established that women owning MSEs were more constrained by institutional than individual factors in seeking financial support. Among the institutional factors include a need of collateral requirement, high interest rates and discrimination against women. The study concludes that the 2000 Tanzania’s Women Development and Gender Policy (WDGP) coordinated by the then Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children (MoCDGC) cannot be claimed to have helped much reduce the gender gaps in access to financial services in Tanzania due to failure in addressing both individual and institutional factors from the supply side that constrain women owned MSEs access to financial services. Based on the findings, the study has advanced a number of recommendations. Amongst them include government and monetary authorities should exert serious effort to support gender driven credit policies targeted at men and women entrepreneurs. Moreover, civic education and publicity should be conducted to address the negative perception about women entrepreneur’s capabilities and skills. Further, women owning MSEs need to be empowered on how to do away with the belief systems, and social practices that continue to create gender gap in women’s access to financial services.
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    Livelihood dynamics of fishing communities in response to declining fishery resources: a case study of three Islands in Lake Victoria, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Magolyo, Berling Sospeter
    The falling trends of fishery resources in Lake Victoria present considerable challenges to the fishing communities, and the scanty available literature inadequately addresses how fishing communities thrive under such circumstances. This study investigated livelihood dynamics of fishing communities in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Data were collected from 246 respondents through interviews, focus group discussions and observations. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses were run using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 19.0). Study findings revealed that the decline of fishery resources has rendered communities to indulge into devising a range of alternative strategies, including investment into heavy and modern fishing outfits, unscrupulous fishing practices, and migration. Results from binary logistic regression showed that choices for particular strategies were determined by a diverse range of factors. For example, fishers living in fishing camps had higher chances to sail far away in search of better catch compared to fishers originating from established households within villages or at beach area. Factors such as age, education level, gender and origin of fishers enhanced fishers’ choices for particular strategies. However, in effort to revamp the fishery sector, different measures are already in practice including BMUs operation which has proved to deter unscrupulous fishing practices. Hence in order to safeguard Lake Victoria’s fisheries, it is recommended that measures such as closed fishing season, prevention of unscrupulous fishing practices, and restricted fishing access should be tightened and enforced. Meanwhile, establishment of other income generating activities such as aquaculture and farming should be given more attention to the communities around so as to reduce fishing pressure and allow rejuvenation of Lake Victoria’s fishery ecology and replenish stock of fishery resources.
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    The impact of challenges of education for all on the provision of quality primary education in Nigeria: a case of Katsina State
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Rafindadi, Shuaibu Musa
    This study examined the impact of challenges of Education For All (EFA) on the provision of quality primary education in Nigeria, focusing on the experiences of Katsina state. The study set out to achieve four specific objectives, namely to examine the effects of (i) shortage of qualified teachers on quality of student academic performance, (ii) inadequate physical facilities on the provision of quality of primary school education, (iii) poor teaching strategies on provision of basic skills and (iv) the extent to which poor continuous assessment practice affects students’ performance on learning basic skills. The study used exploratory and analytical design, and employed qualitative method with element of quantative data. The study involved a total of 152 respondents including 45 primary school teachers of class six (6), 15 education leaders, 15 Pupils, 2 government officials, and 75 Parents. Probability and purposive sampling techniques were used. The primary data were obtained through questionnaire survey, interactive session, interview, FGD, and observations. Secondary data were elicited using documentary review from 15 public primary schools in Katsina state. Descriptive statistics frequencies were used from computer software (IMBSPSS 22 version). Qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. The study findings established that teachers were qualified, but they were inadequate. The findings demonstrated further that lack of enough teachers resulted into heavy workload for teachers and overcrowded classrooms; consequently, pupils were not able to read, write or communicate effectively. The physical facilities were inadequate, thus lowering the quality of education provided and teachers’ motivation. The study findings evidenced that the teaching strategy was poor because of inadequate teaching materials. These challenges lowered teachers’ morale, damaged the school image, as well as students’ progress. The findings on the continuous assessment (CA) indicated that CA was poorly conducted, thus causing stress and anxiety to both teachers and pupils. Parents were also affected because they had spent time in assisting their children on CA tasks which affected their economic productivity. The study concludes that although the teachers were qualified but inadequate in terms of number and areas of specialization. The physical facilities were available but not adequate. The study recommends that, the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) should initiate sustained training and retention programmes for teachers. Physical facilities need to be improved by the state government as stated in the UBE Act of (2004). There is also a need for sustained research on the viability of Education For All (EFA) given the status of periodic state economy. There also a need for further research on the impact of EFA on the quality of junior secondary schools in Katsina state, Nigeria.
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    Practices of teachers‟ participation in secondary school governance in Tanzania: a case of Dar es salaam and Kigoma regions
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Lulamye, Steward Ngagard
    Utafiti huu ulijikita juu ya ushiriki wa walimu katika utawala wa shule kivitendo nchini Tanzania. Kwa ujumla utafiti umeangazia michakato na mikakati inayotumika katika kukuza ushiriki huo kwa kulinganisha kati ya shule za mijini na vijijini katika mikoa ya Dar es Salaam na Kigoma. Mahsusi zaidi utafiti ulijikita katika mambo manne ambayo ni uelewa na maarifa ya walimu juu ya mikakati na michakato ambayo inatumika kukuza ushiriki katika utawala wa shule kama ilivyobainishwa katika Sera za Elimu na za shule; mienendo na mitazamo ya walimu wa shule za sekondari katika ushiriki wa utawala wa shule; mikakati na michakato mbalimbali inavyotumika katika kukuza ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule kwa mwalimu mmojammoja, kama kikundi cha walimu na mwalimu katika ngazi ya shule na pia utafiti uliangazia changamoto chanya zinazoathiri ushiriki dhabiti wa walimu katika utawala wa shule. Katika utafiti huu mpango wa uchunguzi na uchambuzi ulitumika katika kuchunguza mambo mbalimbali. Utafiti huu umetumia njia zisizo za kimahesabu na zile za kimahesabu. Katika kupata sampuli za utafiti zilitumika njia zifuatazo, njia rahisi ya kubahatisha (simple random), njia tabaka (stratified sampling) na sampuli makusudi (purposive sumpling) ambazo zilitumika kuwapata washiriki 281 wa utafiti ambao walikuwa ni walimu, watawala wa shule, wanafunzi, wazazi, wajumbe wa bodi za shule, wahadhili toka Shule kuu ya Elimu katika Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es salaam (UDSE), Taasisi zisizo za serikali ambazo ni Haki Elimu na Twaweza Pamoja na Maofisa wa Wizara ya Elimu Sayansi na Teknolojia kutoka kitengo cha mipango na sera. Taarifa za utafiti zilikusanywa kwa kutumia maswali ya hojaji( questionnaires ), maswali elekezi ya usaili,(interview guide questions) kundi mahsusi la mjadala (Focus group discussions), uchunguzi wa asili (naturalistic observations) na njia zingine za kusoma majarida kupata taarifa kama vile vitabu, sera, machapisho na vipepelushi mbalimbali.Kwa ujumla, utafiti ulibainisha kuwa washiriki wengi katika maeneo yote mawili ya utafiti wameweza kuchambua mikakati na michakato inayo tumia katika kukuza ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Mahususi, zaidi matokeo ya utafiti yameonesha kuwa walimu wengi walikuwa na uelewa na maarifa ya kutosha juu ya mikakati na michakato inayotumika katika kukuza ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Kuweka malengo na madhumuni pamoja na kuandaa mipango ya mafanikio ya kitaaluma ilikuwa ni mikakati mikuu iliyobainishwa, wakati kipimo cha uwajibikaji wa walimu, uimarishaji wa kuwajibika na mamlaka waliyonayo ilikuwa ni Michakato mikuu iliyobainishwa katika mkoa wa Dar es salaam na Kigoma ambapo utafiti ulifanyika. Matokeo yalibainisha zaidi kuwa kulikuwa na mwenendo na mtazamo chanya wa walimu juu ya ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Kadhalika, matokeo yameonesha kuwa washiriki wengi wa utafiti huu katika maeneo yote mawili ya utafiti wamebainisha na kupembua mikakati, michakato na shughuli kama kufundisha na kujifunzia ambayo inatumika kuimarisha ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Vilevile, changamoto za mwalimu mmoja mmoja pamoja na za Utawala wa shule ilibainishwa kuwa ni changamoto kuu zinazokabili ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Pia unyumbulifu wa Maendeleo ya kitaalama ya walimu, Kamati maalum za shule, na Utawala wa shule unaokubali mabadiliko ni mikakati iliyo pendekezwa kukuza ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Hivyo basi utafiti huu unachangia taaluma mpya katika Nyanja ya Utawala wa shule hasa katika michakato, mikakati na changamoto za ushiriki wa walimu katika utawala wa shule kwa mwalimu mmoja mmoja, kama kundi la walimu, na walimu katika ngazi ya shule.Kwa hiyo hitimisho la jumla ni kwamba, washiriki wa utafiti walio wengi walichambua mikakati na michakato ya ushiriki wa walimu katika Utawala wa shule. Utafiti unapendekeza kuwa, kila mdau anapaswa kutimiza wajibu wake ipasavyo, ili kurahisisha uendeshaji mzuri wa shule za sekondari. Kwa mfano wizara ya Elimu, Sayansi na Teknolojia inapaswa kubuni njia nzuri ya kusambaza kwa wadau sera ya elimu na pia kutoa mafunzo yahusuyo sera hiyo katika shule. Mwisho utafiti ulipendekeza maeneo mengine ya kufanyia utafiti juu ya ushiriki wa walimu katika utawala wa shule katika mikoa mingine, utafiti juu ya sera mpya ya elimu na vile vile kufanya utafiti kuangalia ni jinsi gani ushiriki wa walimu katika utawala wa shule unaweza kuhamasisha wanafunzi kuwa na utayali wa kusoma kwa bidii na hatimaye kuongeza ubora wa elimu nchini Tanzania.
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    Dynamic relationships between formal and informal institutions in governance of water resources: a case of Ruaha Sub – Basin, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Kahimba, Joseph
    This study set out to examine the dynamic relationships between formal and informal water institutions in governance of water resources and its implications on water accessibility and control by the local communities in Ruaha Sub-Basin, Tanzania. The study employed case study design whereby three study areas were involved to represent the upper, middle and lower sub-catchments of the Ruaha Sub-Basin. Five techniques were used to obtain empirical data in this study: questionnaires, interviews, Focused Group Discussions (FGDs), documentary review and observations. Qualitative data were analysed using the thematic framework approach whereas quantitative data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. The findings of this study revealed that in Ruaha Sub-Basin both formal and informal systems guided the access and control of water resources among the local communities. However, the trend towards dominance of formal institutions for water related interactions was very clear; and some of the informal arrangements were formalized and integrated into formal water governance arrangements. This brought different implications to the different groups of local communities in terms of their water accessibility and control. Holders of formal water use permits both group and private holders had relatively more access to water. On the other hand, pastoralists and valley bottoms peasants (non owners of water use permits) were on the losing side in terms of water accessibility following the introduction of formal institutions in water governance at the community level. Water User Associations (WUAs) could be appropriate vehicle through which the local communities could exercise control and participate in water related decision making process. However, the current internal and external problems facing most of WUAs turned the local communities into the losing control of their water resources. Based on these findings, it was recommended that Basin Water Authorities in this case Rufiji Basin Water Officers (RBWOs) should develop sound water resources management and development strategies which put the vulnerable groups first in water accessibility and control. Also, the study recommends that for WUAs to become effective vehicle through which local communities can have access to and control of water resources, the government through the Ministry of Water and Irrigation and the Ministry of Agriculture should provide financial and technical assistance to WUAs so that they can stop confining themselves to irrigation agriculture water use only. Instead, WUAs should expand their water systems so as to accommodate majority of different groups of water users including the pastoralists. It is further recommended that pastoralists should be assisted to initiate some kind of pastoralists’ water user associations. Through the associations, pastoralists can not only be able to attract financial and technical support to construct permanent livestock watering points, but also the associations could become instrumental for negotiations with other water user groups within the basin.
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    Inclusive education and the challenges of accessing primary education among disadvantaged children in Mtwara region, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Dimoso, Provident
    The purpose of this study was to analyze challenges for access to public primary schools for the disadvantaged children in Mtwara. The three specific objectives were to: determine the extent of access to primary education for the disadvantaged children; examine the factors constraining access to primary education for the disadvantaged children and establish initiatives to support disadvantaged children’s access to primary education in Mtwara. Probability sampling methods, particularly the simple random sampling technique and non-probability methods which employed purposive sampling techniques were used to derive a sample of 577 respondents from Newala and Nanyumbu Districts. Primary data were collected using questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews with key informants. Secondary data were obtained from the national population census, socio-economic profiles, basic education statistics and school records. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in data analysis. Descriptive statistics were mostly applied for quantitative data, using computer software IBMSPSS version 20 as a tool for analysis. Qualitative data, on the other hand, was subjected to content analysis. The study found out that almost equal number of boys and girls were enrolled in Standard One. The study also revealed that more boys than girls drop out of school. In regard to completion more girls than boys complete primary school. However, girls’ school attendance and examination performance was lower than boys. This means, despite of being enrolled girls are not properly learning. Factors constraining access to primary education include school factors such as shortage of classrooms, toilet facilities and books. Further, shortage and biased distribution of teachers in favor of urban settings was found to constrain access to education for the disadvantaged children in rural areas. The study further realized school child labour which takes place by contracting out the pupils to work in private farms during school hours affects learning for the rural children. Household factors constraining education included: parents discouraging the pupils’ school attendance; discouraging learning and performing well in examinations; parents’ divorce; and child labour especially for girls. Community constraint included the culture of initiation rites, which teach children the issues of adulthood, especially marital affairs at very low age of five to nine years. The training diverts children focus from education to marital issues. With regard to the initiatives to support the disadvantaged children to access education, this study found a mismatch between government initiatives and the actual problem which was supposed to be addressed. Most of government initiatives focused on supply side while the actual constraint is on the demand side. The study concludes that, parents and community culture, especially the preference of initiation rites over education is the most important factor constraining education access for the disadvantaged children. The study recommends, among other things, that education policies, on top of targeting poverty aspect should also target cultural aspect so as to improve access primary school education.
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    Women’s representation and participation in local government in Tanzania: the case of Kinondoni municipal council and Karatu district council.
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Mtasingwa, Lilian Victor
    This study analyzed the situation of women’s representation in the local government. The aim was to identify how the increased number of women representatives enhances their political participation. Furthermore, the study explored the challenges women face in decision making with the aim of identifying effective intervention for their equal representation and effective participation. A total of 610 respondents were involved, 321 females and 289 males from the three categories. Category one comprised women and men who won or lost from the previous local government elections; category two included ordinary citizens who have stayed for more than 10 years in the two study areas; and, category three involved respondents from civil society organizations (CSOs) and government institutions. Random sampling was used to recruit category two respondents while purposive sampling to identify category one and three respondents. An explorative research design was employed whereas for data collection and analysis, qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. On the qualitative side, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and document review were used as data collection techniques, while on the quantitative side, questionnaires with both open and closed ended questions were used. The findings revealed that there are still few women representatives in the local government. In addition, the ‘special seats’ mechanism has enhanced women’s representation and inspired many women to aspire for leadership positions at the local government level, yet, women’s participation in decision making continues to be a challenge. The study shows the majority of women representatives were located in lower leadership positions; have accessed such positions particularly through the special seats and only few have entered through the elected seats representing constituencies, wards and villages. Further, it was revealed that the government, CSOs, and the family have played a very significant role for women’s access to local government decision making positions, while the political parties have not played a significant role in enhancing women’s representation in the political party leadership and in the local governments in particular. The challenges facing women leaders in accessing leadership positions and in influencing the local government decisions towards their concerns identified were: lack of awareness of different women’s issues and needs according to context; women’s political and social ideological differences; lack of/ or less experience in exercising power; patriarchal domination in the political institutions; and, corruption in nomination of candidates that ended up bringing in leaders who are incompetent or who have no confidence. The overall conclusion the study draws is that the success to women’s representation, effective participation and gender equality at the local government level can be achieved by incorporating women effectively in addressing the political limitations facing them towards accessing leadership positions; influencing the decision making towards their collective concerns; and, in eradicating the patriarchal, socio-cultural and economic factors that continue to undermine them. The study generally recommends that all the socio-cultural, political and economic factors that continue to limit women’s representation and participation must be documented and appropriate measures taken for effective reformation. Additionally, gender mainstreaming must be effectively implemented in political processes.
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    Making group social capital work for youth unemployment in Tanzania: the case of rural areas in Iringa region
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Manyerere, David James
    This study examined how and the extent to which Group Social Capital (GSC) works to reduce youth unemployment in rural Tanzania, focusing on the experience of the Youth Economic Group (YEGs) in Iringa region. The four specific study objectives were to: find out the extent to which features of GSC available in YEGs contribute in reducing youth unemployment; determine the relationship between socio-economic backgrounds of youth in YEGs and the capacity of GSC in reducing youth unemployment; assess how GSC in YEGs is nurtured and sustained; and assess problems and challenges emerging from youth related employment interventions such as YEG. Probability and non-probability sampling designs were used to sample a total of 231 respondents, including state and non-state officials, youth and village residents. The data were collected through interviews, Focus Group Discussions, questionnaires and an observation checklist. The study used a mixed approach to analyze the data, whereby both qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using the Nvivo V7 and SPSS V16 computer programs respectively and employed an exploratory and descriptive research designs and case study method. The findings revealed contradictory evidence. By staying together in groups and undertaking various Income Generation Activities (IGAs) and mutual cooperation with external agents, the YEGs were unveiled to have had various forms of GSC. Some of those include trust, networks, group norms and values, and civic engagement. However, contrary to the expectations of forming the YEG programme, several YEGs displayed poor performance due to the relatively low level of GSC, as manifested by the members’ deviant behaviours. These included untrustworthiness and a lack of respect which, in turn, hindered the successful accomplishment of the YEG programme’s intended objectives. Parenting and socialization processes influenced youth behaviour; religious institutions played a more significant role in guiding and shaping the positive youth behaviour that led to improved GSC. Yet, even though the collected evidence established existence of positive relationship between youth’s socio-economic background, GSC in YEGs and creation of employment opportunities, overwhelming majority of YEGs failed to reduce rural youth unemployment given poor economic profile of YEGs. The unique contribution of the study to new knowledge generation is that, when cognitive and structural social capital features are effectively nurtured and sustained by the group members’ efforts and stakeholders’ support is provided in the context of rural areas in developing countries, such as Tanzania, these provide the potential energy to facilitate GSC among Income Generation Group (IGGs) members to reduce youth unemployment. From the study, several recommendations for actions and policy issues that might improve YEGs’ performance emerged. These include: creating youth training centres and sustainable structured programmes to install multiple socio-economic skills and knowledge to address multi-faceted challenges and problems; advocating for policy review that insist on a parenting and socialisation process at an earlier growth stage for easy moulding and mentoring of potential behaviours, such as a spirit of hard work, self-efficacy and persistence; insisting on the bottom-up approach to support youth to take part in decision-making, that facilitates access to and the effective and efficient utilization of local resources in the given rural context. For further research, similar studies with inclusion of other aspects or marginalised groups in different geographical settings are recommended.
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    Local government reform program and public service delivery in Tanzania: the case of primary education and health services in Dodoma and Coast Regions
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Mwaihuti, Martin Benson
    This study focused on the recent decentralization reform in Tanzania based on Decentralization-by-Devolution policy through Local Government Reform Program implemented since the year 2000. Theoretically, the devolution of power through the Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) would improve allocative and productive efficiency, which in turn would improve the delivery of public services at the local level. This study investigated the impact of D-by-D policy through LGRP on public service delivery in Tanzania, with a particular focus on public primary education and health services. The main objective was to examine the impact of Decentralization-by-Devolution policy through Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) on public service delivery in Tanzania with a focus on public primary education and health services. The study employed descriptive case study design using a combination of qualitative approach through the use of in-depth interview, focus group discussion, document analysis and quantitative approach through the use of a semi-structured questionnaire. The study was guided by the Oates decentralization theorem and used the principal-agent theory through decision-space approach to operationalize the theory in examining the impact of Decentralization-by-Devolution (D-by-D) policy through Local Government Reform Program (LGRP) on public service delivery with a particular focus on public primary education and health services in Dodoma and Coast regions. The study findings demonstrated that Decentralization-by-Devolution policy through Local Government Reform Program largely failed to improve the delivery of public services at the local level despite some improvements, which are mainly in quantitative aspects. The failure of Decentralization-by-Devolution policy through Local Government Reform Program in improving public services at the local level is due to failure on the part of central government to implement Local Government Reform Program as stated in the Policy Paper on Local Government Reform and the problems inherent in the public sector in general. The study gives a number of recommendations, including the need for the government to fully implement Decentralization-by-Devolution policy so as to realize the intended outcomes, including improving the delivery of public services.
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    Factors influencing rural savings mobilisation in Tanzania: a case of savings and credit co-operative societies in Dodoma and Morogoro Regions
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Liheta, Basili Seimu Athanas
    This study examined the factors influencing rural savings mobilisation in Tanzania with reference to savings and credit co-operative societies in Dodoma and Morogoro regions. The study identified determinants of member’s savings, institutional factors for savings, magnitude of savings and savings motives of members. Questionnaires, focus group discussions and observation helped collect primary data. A total of 609 respondents were subjected for interview. A multi-stage sampling technique helped draw the sample of four districts and 11 SACCOS. Data analysis involved the use of descriptive statistics and focused on the profile of the respondents, institutional factors affecting savings mobilisation, magnitude of savings and motivation for savings. The savings and participation models were specified and analysed using regression approach. The study findings revealed that demographic, social and economic factors significantly influence the saving behaviour of co-operative members. The findings also indicated that the magnitude of savings varied in the two regions depending on the income earned from various economic activities, motivation by SACCOS, especially payment of dividend. Other factors for the variation were the types of savings products and available services, namely savings account, deposits and shares. The findings further indicated that personal attributes such as individual level of monthly income, individual’s age, size of household and major sources of income influenced participation of members in SACCOS. The findings disclosed institutional factors such as governance, financial and operational policies as determinants of savings mobilisation by SACCOS. Other factors were distance from financial institutions, time to process membership and minimum balance requirement. With regard to factors influencing the choice of SACCOS for financial savings, the findings highlighted security of savings, membership status and ability to qualify for SACCOS membership. Generally, the findings demonstrate the important role of SACCOS in savings mobilisation. They have provided savers who are not accommodated by the banking system with an alternative mode of saving that fits well with their financial capacity. Access to SACCOS is therefore one of the major factors for mobilisation of savings in rural areas of Tanzania. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of and membership of SACCOS helps in mobilizing the rural financial saving in the economy’s financial system and efforts should be made to further enhance the participation of the rural households in SACCOS. Generally, decision and policy makers in private and government institutions concerned with rural finance and development need to consider the effects of the above factors when making decisions concerning saving products suitable for rural areas of Tanzania.
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    Business associations, Social Capital and the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in East Africa: a comparative study of food processing enterprises of Rwanda and Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Gamba, Freddy Jirabi
    The study examined the contribution of Social Capital (SC) in Business Associations (BAs) to enhancing the performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in East Africa with reference to food processing in Tanzania and Rwanda. The objectives were to establish the performance of BAs, analyse SC in BAs, determine the contribution of BAs to SMEs and identify the outcomes associated with BAs’ work. Two BAs were studied from each country under review. The study used both quantitative and qualitative research techniques and primary data from 145 SMEs. Semi-structured questionnaire and unstructrured interviews were used. The analysis employed the composite constructs of SC using multi-indicators of every SC variable for comparison between BAs. Overall, the study findings show that based on 12 BAs performance indicators, Rwanda’s BAs perform better than those in Tanzania; there was more SC in Rwanda’s BAs than Tanzania’s BAs in terms of trust and social cohesion, collective action and information sharing; and Rwanda’s BAs contribute relatively more to the SMEs’ performance than Tanzania’s BAs. SC’s Trust and social cohesion had indicators such as members' feeling valued by BAs, members trust to BA leaders and fellow members, tendency of visiting each other, possibilty to get help and freedom to speak. Collective action gauged the ability and willingness of BA members to confront issues on unitary joint approach. Information sharing tracked the extent of information sharing in BAs, members’ choice of source of information, and BAs’ facilitation of information sharing. BAs contribution to SMEs is through facilitating access to finance, R&D, management and marketing, production quality and technology and trade fair and exhibitions. As an emergent issue, the study found also that BA members dealing with specialized products tend to create different social relations from those dealing with diversified business portifolios. It is recommended integrate SC in policy, strategy and operation reforms and machineries and the use of BA, SC and Stakeholders Relational Model for decision making and prioritization. The implication is that countries with more SC and efficient BAs can develop faster than others.
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    An enquiry into gender mainstreaming in local councils in Arusha city and Meru district council in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Lucas, Leticia
    This study inquired into the implementation of gender mainstreaming strategy in Local Councils (LCs) in Tanzania with the case studies of Arusha City and Meru District local councils. The study was glided by four specific objectives. The first specific objective examined whether the basic pre-requisites of implementing gender mainstreaming strategy were adopted in the local councils of the study. The second one assessed the capacities of employees to implement the strategy in LCs. The third objective identified the outcomes of gender equality initiatives in LCs of the study. The fourth, explored the challenges faced by LCs and coping measures towards adequate implementation of gender mainstreaming strategy in the selected local councils. This study employed the Critical Third World Feminist Theory (CTWFT). The study adopted descriptive research design with a case study method. The mixed method research approach was used to collect data. The sample comprised of 382 respondents comprising 130 men and 252 women who were purposively and randomly sampled. Instruments for data collection included questionnaire guides, Focus Group Discussion checklist, interview guides and observation checklist. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics with tables of frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data were analysed by content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there were some elements of considering men’s and women’s needs in development interventions in the LCs of the study. However, most of the basic pre-requisites to implement gender mainstreaming strategy were not yet evidently adopted in the studied local councils. For instance, the two councils had no gender mainstreaming tools or guidelines providing approaches to mainstreaming gender strategy. There were no visible capacities of employees to implement gender mainstreaming strategy in the area of study. There was crude evidence to demonstrate the outcomes of the initiatives of gender equity and equality in the selected local councils. The major challenges towards execution of gender mainstreaming strategy included lack of political will, insufficient financial resources for employees’ capacity building, and constraining cultural discriminating practices. The conclusion made by this study as a contribution to knowledge is that there was no consistent or planned implementation of gender mainstreaming strategy in the selected LCs. Consequently, gender equity and equality as end goal of the implementation was not yet attained. As coping measures, the study recommends strong gender awareness creation programmes and designing the tools or guidelines providing approaches to implementing gender mainstreaming strategy. Moreover, creating a strong networking with institutions implementing the strategy to assist in the process is found necessary. Elimination of all forms of gender discrimination resulting from traditions and culture is also recommended.