PhD Theses

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    The relationship between Corporate Sustainability Practices and Financial Performance of Tourism Firms in Tanzania.
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Suluo, Said Juma
    Business firms are increasingly confronted with the demand to address social environmental, and economic challenges facing societies. However, it is not clear whether such initiatives, in turn, enhance firm financial performance. This study examines the relationship between corporate sustainability practices and firm financial performance of tourism firms in Tanzania. The study adopted mixed methods approach, qualitative data was collected through a review of tourism firms websites and interviews of firm managers and analysed thematically. Quantitative data was collected through questionnaires filled by managers of 316 tourism firms and analysed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. The findings generally indicate that tourism firms emphasized corporate sustainability practices which have immediate benefits to the local communities’ welfare. Moreover, corporate sustainability practices were mostly implemented through philanthropic contributions made to local communities projects. The results also show that there is a direct positive relationship between corporate sustainability practices which have immediate benefits to the community and firm financial performance. However, corporate sustainability practices which have direct benefits to the community had an indirect relationship with firm financial performance mediated through firms’ strategic proactivity capability. The findings imply that investment in addressing social challenges is consistent with shareholders wealth maxization especially where such investments are undertaken proactively and strategically. Firms are therefore encouraged to engage or persist engaging in corporate sustainability proactively and strategically for a successful outcome. Furthermore, policymakers need to develop corporate sustainability national policy that may help to align the corporate sustainability investments with national sustainable development goals.
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    Financial linkages and sustainability of microfinance co-operatives in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2020) Towo, Nathaniel
    This thesis examines the relationship between financial linkages and sustainability of microfinance Co-operatives (MFCs) in Tanzania using the agency theory and relationship lending theories. The agency theory was used to explain the relationship between financial leverage and MFCs sustainability. The Also explain the moderating effect of MFGs board of directors as a governance mechanism (board size and board meetings) on the financial linkages-MFCs sustainability relationship. In addition, relationship lending theories which have been widely tested in the non-financial sector were used to explain the association between lending relationship aspects (duration of relationship and multiple lending relationships) and MFCs sustainability. Based on the reviewed literature, the financial leverage, duration of relationship and multiple lending relationships are treated as independent variables, while operational sustainability and employee productivity are dependent variables. A balanced panel data of 115 MFCs from Tanzania for a period 2011 to 2014 with a total of 460 observations has been used. The Data was hand collected which was the unit of analysis. The panel regression models were employed to analyses data. The robustness check was performed by categorizing the MFCs into community and employees bases. Also the Davidson-Mackinnon test of exogeneity was conducted to establish the presence of endogeneity. The results show a negative and significant relationship between the financial leverage and MFCs sustainability both in terms that’s of operational sustainability and employees productivity. Also the results show that duration of the relationship is negatively and significantly related to operational sustainability and employee productivity. Further the results demonstrated that frequency of MFCs board of directors meetings reduces the disadvantageous effect of financial leverage on operational sustainability, but had no effect on financial linkages aspects. The results also indicated that the size of board of directors significantly moderated the relationship between multiple lending relationships and MFCs sustainability. The results of this study extend to the existing literature on the agency theory by showing that an increase of wholesale loans in MFCs results in lower performance due to higher cost of debt. The study has also shown that the frequency of board meeting enhances control and monitoring of MFCs management borrowing strategies hence improved sustainability. Furthermore, the findings position relationship lending between wholesale loans providers and MFCs in the body of literature within the context where the market for wholesale loans is less competitive, leading to high financing costs. The study argues that MFCs have contained their costs and ensure that they generate more revenues from loans accessed from other financial institutions. The study also argues for the reinforcement of policies and regulations on MFCs operations and application of managerial practices associated with financial linkages
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    The effect of business network characteristics and industrial regulation on local content practice in oil and Gas companies in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Msuya, Hemed Juma
    The effect of business network characteristics and industrial regulation on local content practice in oil and Gas companies in Tanzania Hemed Juma Msuya PhD (Business Administrations) University of Dar es Salaam, Business School, 2020 The effect of business network characteristics and industrial regulation on local content practice has not been explained adequately. As a result, the host countries suffer in the determination of the appropriate approach towards local content requirements. Therefore, this study was proposed specifically to explore the effect of the structural and functional characteristics of business network on local content practice. Also, the study examined the effect of interactions between business network characteristics and industrial regulation on the local content practice in oil and gas companies operating in Tanzania. Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) theory and the theories of economic regulation were used to inform the study regarding the tendency and behavior patterns of the study variables. The research pursued a post-positivism philosophy, whereby a survey design was adopted. Data were collected through self-administered standard questionnaires from a sample of 191 respondents, obtained randomly from employees working in middle and senior positions in oil and gas companies. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyses the collected data, whereby principal component analysis and regression analyses were conducted. The findings showed that business network characteristics have a positive effect on local content practice, while interactions between business network characteristics and industrial regulation produce a negative effect on the local content practice in the companies. The findings imply that, given the new market constraints, oil and gas companies will provide opportunities to local suppliers without any forceful inducement from the host country, while the use of forceful inducement reduces the local content practice in the companies. This further implies that when forceful inducement towards local content requirements is used, oil and gas companies will always opt to protect their relationship with key suppliers rather than the one with the host government. Therefore, the study recommends that forceful inducement should not be used with respect to local content requirements except where there is a proven need.
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    Accountants' perspectives on the influence of external audit services on the implementation of IPSAS: evidence from Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Mssusa, Neema Kiure
    Despite the potential for the external audit services to influence the implementation of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), the empirical literature does not document this influence, which creates a knowledge gap. This study sought to fill this gap by assessing perspectives of accountants on the impact of the external audit services on the implementation of IPSAS in Tanzania. Adopting the positivist research paradigm, the study employed a cross-sectional survey in which 379 respondents, comprising Public Sector Entities (PSE) financial accountants, internal auditors and external auditors, participated. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data analysis techniques employed were the mean, percentages, standard deviations and structural equation modeling. The findings suggested that external audit services influence the implementation of IPSAS. Moreover, the findings showed that regulatory framework moderate the influence of external audit services on the implementation of IPSAS. Furthermore, the findings proposed that auditor's characteristics mediate the influence of external audit services on the implementation of IPSAS. Looking at the individual components of external audit services and regulatory framework, the findings suggested that the assurance services and Parliamentary Accounts Committees (PAC) have no influence on the implementation of IPSAS. Some practical implications of the findings are that PAC and external audit services may have a profound impact on solving the accountability, management and decision-making challenges that have hampered PSE. Consequently, the study recommends that the government should build structures that encourage organizational learning to improve the skills and knowledge of accountants. Also, the National Audit Office Tanzania and PAC should devise a mechanism that would foster a close working relationship between them. PAC should familiarize themselves with applicable IPSAS requirements. The study's key limitations are that it failed to consider other potential factors that might affect IPSAS implementation, and the assumption of homogeneity at the level of PSE IPSAS implementation. These limitations present opportunities for further studies that could extend this study's insights.
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    The influence of tax compliance methods on tax compliance among medium taxpayers in Zanzibar
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2020) Khalfan, Shuweikha Salum
    This study assessed the influence of tax compliance methods on the compliance of medium taxpayers and the mediating effect of trust in government on the relationship between the mixed method and tax compliance of medium taxpayers in Zanzibar. Persuasion method was assessed through the influence of taxpayers services and tax laws simplification on tax compliance. The coercion method was measured from the influence of tax audit and tax penalty on tax compliance. The mixed method was measured through the combining effect of taxpayers services, tax laws simplification, tax audit and tax penalty on tax compliance. The study used Slippery Slope Framework, the Economic Deterrence Theory, the Theory of Planned behavior and Fiscal Psychology Theory. A survey was conducted among 372 medium taxpayers registered by Tanzania Revenue Authority in Zanzibar. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis and the Structural Equation Model analysis. The findings revealed that mixed method is the most effective method for promoting tax compliance among medium taxpayers in Zanzibar, compared to the effect of the persuasion or coercion method when used separately. This supports the novelty of the Slippery Slope Framework. The findings that, trust in government partially mediates the relationship between the mixed method and tax compliance confirmed the Fiscal Psychology Theory. This study also asserts the Theory of Planned Behaviour by found that, medium taxpayers are compliant and the persuasion measures have positive influence on tax compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that the tax authority should increase the taxpayers' services coverage, improve the tax audits operations and the government should honour its trust in the public to ensure high tax compliance.
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    Fiscal and Monetary Policy Mix in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Mathu, Moses Muthama
    This study empirically analyzes the monetary and policy mix in Kenya for the period 1996-2017. Monetary and fiscal policy reaction functions are specified in a Markov regime-switching framework and estimated by maximum likelihood method. The results show that the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) considers inflation, expected inflation, exchange rate and output gap in setting monetary policy. Fiscal authority does not consider debt level in determining the deficit level suggesting that the debt is unsustainable. The results also show that monetary and fiscal policy rules are characterized by regime shifts from active fiscal/passive monetary policies mix prior to 2004 and active monetary/active fiscal policies mix thereafter indicating lack of clear policy coordination. The effect of fiscal deficit on inflation is analyzed using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The results show no evidence of significant effects of fiscal deficit on inflation in Kenya both in the short and long run. This is attributed to the restriction of CBK To finance and prudent monetary policy employed by CBK thereby subduing the deficit-inflation link. Results suggest that inflation in Kenya is mainly driven by the level of economic growth, exchange rate depreciation and the monetary policy stance. This study recommends that the conduct of the monetary and fiscal policy be more coordinated to ensure optimal achievement of their objectives. There is need for the government to cut its expenditures controls and fiscal consolidation to reduce the growing public debt. There is need to strengthen revenue collection, prevent revenue diversion and corruption, and sealing of tax evasion and avoidance loopholes.
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    Effect of partner-agent model practice on microinsurance client-value dimensions in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Minani, Isidore
    The Partner-Agent Model (PAM) practice has significantly enabled the delivery of a variety of loan-embedded microinsurance products or PAM microinsurance, to low income people in Tanzania. Despite such an achievement, less is still known about the effect of PAM practice on PAM microinsurance client-value demensions in Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to examine the effect of PAM Practice on PAM microinsurance client-value dimensions in Tanzania. Specifically, the study sought to assess the status of PAM Practice and the appropriateness, accessibility, affordability and the responsiveness of PAM microinsurance, as well as to examine the effect og PAM Practice on the four dimensions of PAM microinsurance in Tanzania. The study was informed by three theories, namely the Partnership and Alliance Theory (PAT), the Transaction Cost Theory (TCT) and the Information Asymmetry Theory (IAT). The correlational research design, the stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to collect quantitative data from 229 MFIs (n – 229) operating in 10 regions of Tanzania. Frequency percentage, bar charts, the mean and the standard deviation were used to present descriptive data. Furthermore, the hierarchical regression analysis and the structural equation modeling analysis were used to examine the effect of PAM Practice on PAM microinsurance client-value dimensions. The descriptive analysis results show that the PAM Practice and microinsurance client-value dimensions are still scoring low in Tanzania. Consistent with both the Partnership and Alliance Theory and information Asymmetry Theory, the multivariate analysis results exhibited a significant positive effect of PAM Practice on PAM microinsurance appropriateness, accessibility, affordability and responsiveness. As such, the results refuted earlier studies’ tenet that PAM Practice impedes PAM microinsurance affordability. Conversely, the study suggests an extension of the Transaction Costs. The study suggests an extension of the Transaction Cost Theory by adding the cost of MFI’s risk to lose clients (in case a partner behaves opportunistically) to the list of earlier identified transaction costs. The study recommends an improvement of PAM Practice through periodic meetings between MFIs and Insurance companies in order to enhance microinsurance client-value.
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    The use of production sharing agreements (PSA) as a strategy for attracting oil and gas investors in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Baraza, Flora
    This study focused on assessing the use of production sharing agreement (PSA) as a strategy for attracting oil and gas investors in Tanzania. The study was guided by two hypotheses as study predictors and oil and gas investors’ attraction as the dependent variable. The study was performed using explanatory study design whereas knowledge generation was gathered using causal relationship approach. The study generated information using 68 questionnaires which were supplied to the respective case studies that is government entities responsible for production sharing agreement (PSA). The data collected was organized and analyzed using STATA, which host a number of analytical tools including Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression which was used in the study to show relationship between study variables. This study in the provide different findings, however, one study hypotheses is the profit sharing structure under PSA was found positive and statistically significant on the attraction of oil and gas investors. The implication is that oil and gas investors through production sharing agreement (PSA) are strongly influenced by the percentage of profit sharing between the government and the investor. The second hypothesis being the tax incentives under PSA was found to be negative and not statistically significant on the attraction of oil and gas investors. This could be due to the fact that the incentives offered are biased depending on the strength of economic system, (Slemrod, (1981)). The study recommends that the government must frequently review the oil and gas sector and enact legislations that will ensure a win situation for both the Host Government and the investors. Proper and fair negotiation of the profit distribution structure under PSA have to take place to ensure a balance within the conflicting goals between the government and the investor. Further studies should be done on the challenges that investors face when negotiating the oil and gas agreements. Also, studies should be done on how to improve the oil and gas agreements so as to obtain maximum investment in the sector.
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    Influence of network competencies on small and medium enterprises’ performance among building materials retailers in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Kavenuke, Romed
    This study assessed the influence of network competencies on performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Tanzania. Specifically, it sought to: examine the extent to which network competence qualifications influence SMEs‟ performance in retailing sector of Tanzania; assess extent to which network competence task execution influence on SMEs‟ performance in retailing sector; and analyze extent to which network configuration influences SMEs‟ performance. Using quantitative research approach, data were collected from 314 SMEs retailing building materials in Mbeya, Njombe and Iringa. They were analyzed using structural equation modeling version 20 through the Analysis of Moment Structure (Amos) 20. The findings indicated that, network competence qualifications and network configuration have significant relationship within the subjective measures of SMEs‟ performance while network competence task execution did not. Thus, qualifications of owners/managers and configurations of networks are influential in enhancing SMEs while network competence task execution does not influence SMEs‟ performance. The study recommends a policy to be formulated that addresses network competence issue at both national and firm levels. Furthermore, the study recommends further studies to be done about network competence using different sector, methodology.
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    The influence of administrative aspects and users ‘attributes on E-government implementation success in Tanzania: user’s perspectives
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Sichone, Joyce
    Most government invests in electronic government (e-government) to derive its benefits. Despite the claimed benefits, attaining e-government implementation success is challenging. This thesis, therefore, aimed at investigating administrative and users related factors to know their influence in e-government success for both technological aspects and information system (IS) success. Employing survey strategy, data was collected by use of structured questionnaire to customs staff as well as tax practitioners. 246 responses were obtained and used for analysis. Data was analyzed quantitatively using principal component analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and the developed hypotheses were tested by structural equation modeling. Based on the analysis, four e-government constructs were extracted; administrative aspects and users’ attributes (predictor variables), as well as the technological aspects and IS success (criterion variables). The results show that users’ attribute have direct relationship with e-government (for both, IS and technological aspects’ success); while administrative aspects were supportive for the success of technological aspects but not to the IS success. The unsupportive results are peculiar, suggesting further debates. Hence, the study recommends governments to put emphasis on administrative issues (information and communication technology –ICT policies, laws and procedures), and users’ related matters like experience in dealing with technological aspects relevant for e-government implementation. Moreover, in addressing IS success for proper e-government operations, focus should be the users’ attribute.
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    The relationship between information and communication technology adoption and access to financial services:the case of microfinance institutions to Tanzania. Doctoral dissertation
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2019) Tenson, Herbert
    Access to financial services plays a pivotal role in human development and nation growth. However, access to financial services is limited to a large population due to different constraints, including low technology and financial literacy. This study examines the relationship between ICT adoption and access to financial services in Tanzania. Theoretical frameworks and empirical literatures associated with ICT adoption in microfinance and the banking industry on delivery of financial services was considered to guide, develop hypotheses and conceptual framework of this study. A cross-section study design was conducted in Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro regions. Data were gathered through convenience sampling from 303 client out of 385 questionnaires administered to 77 MFIs. Structural equation modelling employed to fit sampled data into hypothesized model and testing hypotheses of the current study. Findings indicate that seven hypotheses were have significant relationships while three hypotheses have insignificant relationships. The current study found client ICT adoption relates significantly on intention to use ICT for availability of financial services; ICT adoption relates significantly on intention to use ICT for affordability of financial services. Other findings indicate that ICT adoption relates significantly on perceived usefulness; and perceived usefulness relates significantly on intention to use ICT for availability, convenience and affordability of financial services. Further findings indicate that perceived usefulness mediates fully the relationship between ICT adoption and intention to use ICT for availability of financial services. While insignificant relationship found on the relationship between ICT adoption and intention to use ICT for convenience financial services; and Perceived usefulness fails to mediate the relationship of ICT adoption on convenience and affordability of financial services. The study contributes to strategic management debates on whether ICT adoption associates on access to financial services in Tanzania. It is recommended that MFIs should partner with mobile service providers for quality services delivery to large population. In addition, supervisory bodies should formulate an integrated strategy to guarantee safety and minimise risks on access financial services through ICT. Further exploration of the effects of ICT on informal MFIs on access to financial services for marginalised groups should be researched.
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    Adoption precursors and the sustainability entrepreneurial approach in Kenya’s agribusiness sector; the case of the flower Industry
    (University of Dar es salaam, 2018) Juma, Flaura Kidere Mapinga
    The adoption of sustainability Entrepreneurial Approach (SEA) in business is a panacea for sustainable development in in today’s global arena. However knowledge regarding precursors of its adoption in a developing country’s context is scanty. Therefore, it is crucial to explore precursors of SEA from a developing country’s context as well as in a developing holistic manner. This study explored the procursors of SEA adoption using in depth interviews of sic heterogeneous flower firms where the firms were the unit analysis and managers charged with sustainability matters where the unit of enquiry. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that external precursors for the adoption of SEA consisted of market and industry trends, international standards, community pressure and consumer expectations. Whereas, the internal firm precursors included firm culture, business goals, ecological needs, financial and technical capability. On the other hand, precursors related to entrepreneurial behaviors comprised innovation, vision, leadership style, passion for nature, passion for people and being knowledgeable. Study results also showed that control precursors consisting of investors’ involvement, investor knowledge, need to restore industry image were crucial in the adoption of SEA. However, regulatory framework that was effective in enforcement influenced the adoption of SEA. These included international standards for member countries were firms were involved in exporting flower. Whereas, local regulations.
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    Board Composition and Financial Performance of Manufacturing firms in Uganda
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Akisimire, Richard
    This study examined the effects of board composition on the financial performance in the sector. The study was cross sectional and quantitative. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey using 78 Ugandan manufacturing firms and 235 board members (respondents) as the unit of inquiry. Correlation and regression were used to ascertain the validity of the set hypotheses. Findings in respect of the main objective indicate that board composition is strongly and positively associated with the financial performance of Uganda’s manufacturing firms. For the specific objectives; Board diversity and board size are significantly associated with firm financial performance. However, CEO Chairman Duality was found to have an insignificant association with the financial performance of Uganda’s manufacturing firms. Firm size was found to have an insignificant moderating effect on the relationship between board composition and financial performance
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    Problems of information management in small and medium enterprises in Tanzania: Information Systems Success Perspective
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2004) Mbamba, Ulingeta Obadia Lebson
    The thesis describes problems of information management in small and medium enterprises. The thesis is based on SMEs' and information technology's vulnerability to failure as well as importance for these two sectors for successful development of many economies. The research collected data through survey from 52 organisations. The data were on technological issues (like .flexibility), organizational characteristics (like position of information and communication technology in organisations), strategic information management, culbn-e aspects, information systems use, user information. satisfaction, demographic and information systems problems. Other variables were change management and organisations size. The data were then subjected to several statistical analyses including structural equation modeling in order to develop an appropriate model for ICT implementation in SMEs. The results show that SMEs face the following problems general ICT problems: change management strategies, management support problems, external support problems, and financial problems. One technical part, the problems are: hardware related problems and software related problems (non-availability of tailor made software systems with high reliability, maintenance of software systems at acceptable levels, lack of software systems in local languages). The research also tested hypotheses, which were divided m three parts: change management, information management and teclu1ology related hypotheses. Result on these hypotheses indicate that change styles like re-engineering favors information systems use but not user information satisfaction. The more the information is managed strategically the less the number of ICT problems. Finally, for SMEs, technology flexibility has no impact on its success in implementation; however, technology flexibility influences the level of problems experienced. Finally, using structural equation modelling, the model which developed form literature reviews was tested and found to meet many fit measures criteria. •This model highlights how information systems should be managed in SMEs.
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    Antecedents of intrapreneurial behaviour of small and medium enterprises in fruit juice processing
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Afriyie, Nina
    As much as intrapreneurship is acknowledged as one of the key factors for firms’ growth and competitiveness, knowledge on how to promote intrapreneurship in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is limited. This study aimed at establishing the effect of potential antecedents of employees’intrapreneurial behaviour of SMEs, focusing on fresh fruit juice processing SMEs in Ghana. Building on existing scholarly works and theories, this study sought to understand owner-managers perspective on the potential antecedents of employees’ intrapreneurial behaviour as well as to ascertain the potential effect of employees’ perceived self-efficacy and motivation on intrapreneurial behaviour. The differences in employees’ self-efficacy, motivation and intrapreneurial behaviour with respect to their demographic characteristics were also focused. To achieve the research objectives, an explanatory research design with survey strategy was employed. Interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data. The population of the study was workers and owner-managers in fresh fruit juice processing industry. A sample of 290 workers from three regions Greater Accra, Eastern and Central was drawn with 234 respondents fully participating while a total of 09 respondents participated in the qualitative phase. Structured questionnaire and an interview guide were the research tools used in collecting primary data from workers and owner-managers in a divergent mixed method approach. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used to analyse the quantitative data while thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. Findings on demographic characteristics revealed that differences exist in gender and employee self-efficacy but not motivation and intrapreneurial behaviour. Employee age was indifferent to self-efficacy, motivation and intrapreneurial behaviour while significant difference was found in employees’ level of education and intrapreneurial behaviour but not self-efficacy and motivation. Further analyses also demonstrate that employee self-efficacy and motivation have a potentially significant effect on intrapreneurial behaviour. The results indicate that intrapreneurial behaviour of SMEs in fresh fruit juice processing correlates with employees’ self-efficacy and motivation and that these two could be regarded as antecedents of employee intrapreneurial behaviour. In addition, it was also revealed that firm resources availability may have a significant mediating effect on the antecedents of intrapreneurial behaviour. This study recommends SME owner-managers and other stakeholders’ to develop prudent strategies to enhance and grow the self-efficacy and the intrinsic drive of employees. These could be in turn, used as key factors in designing and targeting the campaigns for the emergence of intrapreneurship in SMEs characterized by innovative and proactive behaviour. Additional antecedents such a culture of continuous improvement, a learning attitude, ego and passion, a sense of belonging, job security, effective communication, education and training and good remuneration were also discovered from the qualitative phase. Further research is needed to identify other factors that could aid in the campaign on how to promote intrapreneurial behaviour in small firms in the Sub-Saharan African context. Again, since this study tested the observational casual effect regarding the antecedents of intrapreneurial behaviour through cross-sectional design, a longitudinal study which goes further to examine an actually casual effect could be conducted.
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    The influence of non-financial factors on employee retention in Tanzania’s health sector
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2019) Kibozi, Suzanne Cassian
    This study examines the relationship between non-financial factors and employee retention in Tanzania’s health sector. It uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods based on a survey of 341 health employees (physicians and nurses) from four regional referral hospitals. The hospitals were selected purposively whereas simple random sampling was used to select the health employees. Of the 341 targeted respondents, 301 completed the survey questionnaire, which represents 88.3 percent response rate. Structural Equation Modelling was employed for quantitative data analysis through Analysis of Moments Structures 21 whereas NVivo 8 was used for qualitative data analysis. In particular, the study looked at the non-financial factors (Work-life balance practices, Career development programmes and Work environment management), on the one hand, in relation to employee retention (Intention to stay and Affective organisational commitment) on the other hand. It also analysed the mediating influence of the Transformational Leadership Style. The study corroborates the Social Exchange Theory and Hertzberg Dual-Factor Theory. Measurement scales for the constructs satisfied the minimum requirements of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The measurement models of the SEM constructs were evaluated using factor analyses (EFA and CFA). They were accepted on the basis of measures of fit, the statistical significance and the signs of the coefficients. A set of hypotheses concerning direct and indirect links between constructs was derived from the literature. The study findings indicate that there were positive and negative significant relationships among the variables. The results also confirm the presence of mediation effects between the independent and dependent variables. Moreover, the results revealed a significant positive relationship between Work-Life Balance practices and all the two indicators of Employee Retention (Intention to Stay and Affective Organisational Commitment); Work Environment Management and Affective Organisational Commitment. Unlike many previous studies, this study found a negative significant relationship between Career Development Programmes and Intention to Stay. The study also found a non-significant relationship between Career Development Programmes and Affective Organisational Commitment as well as Work Environment Management and Intention to Stay. The study found mediation effects of Transformational Leadership Style in the relationship between Work-Life Balance practices and Affective Organisational Commitment as well as Work Environment Management and Affective Organisational Commitment. No support was found for a mediating role of Transformational Leadership Style in the relationship among all the three non-financial factors and the Intention to Stay as well as Career Development Programmes and Affective Organisational Commitment. This study, therefore, recommends for the promotion of the provision of non-financial factors coupled with Transformational Leadership Style among health sector organisations in Tanzania.
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    An exploration of the relationship between tourism cultural capital dimensions and destination image: a case study of Zanzibar
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2015) Salim, Issa Seif
    Tourism cultural capital has become a key component in destination branding. Despite its abundance and importance in tourism, the amount of research that has been conducted in conceptualizing tourism cultural capital and its relationship with destination image does not reflect its importance. It is unlikely that such capital in most of the tourist destination still does not patronage tourists to feature the image of a destination to convincingly standard on the global tourism market. This study explored the relationship between the dimensions of tourism cultural capital and the destination image. It also examined the intervening effects of destination promotional efforts on this relationship. Qualitative data were collected from indigenous Zanzibaris, tourism decision makers and international tourists through interviews and focus group discussions, while quantitative data were collected from departing international tourists. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed in which seven dimensions were identified. These are historical objects, cultural events, cultural behavior, “traditional medicine and spiritual practices’’, “traditional aqua activities’’, “food and culinary experiences’’, and handcrafts. Structural equation modeling revealed that four subsequently underlying dimensions: historical objects, cultural behavior, ‘’food and culinary experiences’’ and handcrafts have a significant relationship with the destination image. It was also established that the effectiveness of destination promotional efforts have a significant mediating relationship between tourism cultural capital and the destination image. This study produces a comprehensive and broader conceptualization of the dimensions of tourism cultural capital and how the separate components components contribute to the formulation of the destination image so that appropriate management strategies for each may be formulate and implemented.
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    The influence of relationship marketing on customer retention in the luxury hotels in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Wilbard, Juliana Goodluck
    Concern about the quality of the services offered by the hotels is one of the main challenges Tanzania needs to address. There has been serious allegation that the service offered by many hotels in Tanzania is not of international standards. Despite the great effort that has been done by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism in advertising the nations' natural resources to the world, the number of the visitors repeat visiting the country is still too low. The general objective of this study was to examine the influence of relationship marketing on customer retention in Tanzania luxury hotels. The study also examines whether hotel attributes or guest characteristics moderate the link between relationship marketing and customer retention in Tanzania luxury hotels. The study proposed a theoretical extension of social exchange theory (SET) and resource based view (RBV) suggesting that different hotel practices create guest-hotel relationships and these relationships in turn are associated with the intention to repeat visit and recommending the hotel to others. This study met these research aims through an extensive study of relevant literature and the implementation of practical research. The latter was carried out through questionnaires survey which were conducted with 243 repeat hotel guests from 52 luxury hotels in Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Manyara and Zanzibar. A hypothesized model that included relationship marketing dimensions as predictors of customer retention was evaluated using the Multiple Linear Regression Model. The results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that relationship marketing has an influence on customer retention. The results show that service augmentation and interaction marketing have a significant impact on customer retention, while core service, relationship customization and relationship pricing have positive effect but insignificant on customer retention. The results further indicated that hotel attributes and customers characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between relationship marketing and customer retention. These relationships fit well with social exchange theory and resource based view, where in relationship marketing as a sign of a hotel's commitment towards guests is reflected in customer retention. The study also contributes to the strategic management debate on what determines customer retention by identifying the moderating role of hotel attributes and guest characteristics in targeting relationship marketing towards customer retention. The main conclusions drawn from this research were that, two relationship marketing dimension in this (service augmentation and interaction marketing) are important dimensions in building positive relationship marketing and customer retention in the luxury hotels in Tanzania. Other three dimensions (core service, relationship customization and relationship pricing have to be moderated by hotel attributes (location and classification) and customer's characteristics (age and purpose of visits) to increase customer retention in the luxury hotels in Tanzania. This research came up with a model which evidence about relationships between relationship marketing, hotel attributes, customer characteristics and customer retention. The inclusion of customer characteristics and hotel attributes is suggested to contribute additionally to the body of relationship marketing literature and provide a more complete model within a hospitality context. Future studies can examine the impact of relationship marketing and customer retention in the context of small and medium scale hotels which also suffer from lack of the same study. Other research could see whether customers in small hotel (i.e., 3-star) perceive more interpersonal relationships than they do in four and five-star hotel.
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    Investigation of tourists’ total dining experiences in Tanzania: an Inbound Tourists Perspective
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Mbilinyi, Bahati Dionys
    Tourists’ food consumption is increasingly considered as a source of memorable and exciting encounter potential to unleash some intense fulfilment of a travel. Since almost all tourists have to eat, tourism dining constitutes major means of experiencing destinations’ culinary offerings. Therefore, it is important to understand how tourists evaluate their dining experiences and potential determinants of such responses. This study investigated the relationship between determinants and attributes of tourists’ Total Dining Experiences and the mediation effect of emotional responses (positive and negative) in that relationship. Qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey were conducted to 34 and 741 tourists respectively at Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar regions. In phase one, a qualitative data utilized thematic analysis and identified determinants and attributes of TDE. Phase two followed, whereby quantitative data analysis employed Structural Equation Modelling and Analysis of Moments Structure to evaluate the proposed relationships. Results indicate seven attributes used by tourists’ to evaluate their Total Dining Experiences (TDE) including adventurous (escape), lifetime experience (pleasure), sampling more unique local flavours (novelty), memorability, part of culture (authenticity & social inclusion), varieties of new ingredients (learning) and satisfaction (goal achievement). The determinants of TDE were also identified. These included Food Quality, Service Quality, Environment Quality, Price Offered and Other Guests. Results further indicate significant positive relationships between the five determinants and attributes of TDE as well as some significant and non-significant mediation effect of emotions in the relationship between determinants and attributes of TDE. The study confirms some empirical conceptualization of quality, emotions and consumer experiential fulfillment theoretical frameworks in a holistic Total Dining Experiences framework. This can help culinary establishments in designing of dining stimuli that elicit certain emotions which eventually affect tourists’ dining experiences. The study suggests promotion of culinary tourism as one of tourism products where destinations’ culinary heritage is highly utilized to enhance quality of tourists’ experiences.
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    Frugality, family cohesiveness, strategic openness and small business financing in Uganda
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Matama, Rogers
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of frugality, family cohesiveness in business and strategic openness on small business financing. In this study, financing refers to the extent of debt in a firm’s capital structure. Data were collected from a cross section of 528 small business firms in Uganda in 2014. Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis, we found out the core dimensions of frugality, family cohesiveness, and strategic openness. Regarding frugality, two dimensions resulted, i.e. spending discipline, which explained a variance of 60 % in frugality and delayed gratification, which explained a variance of 32%. Family cohesiveness constituted one dimension that explained 96% variance. Regarding strategic openness, two dimensions resulted i.e. mixed-openness (80%) and competitor-secretness (10%). We also found that for firms with debt and equity mix, equity composition averaged 55 percent; nonbank debt averaged 30 percent, while bank debt averaged 15 percent of total financing. Friedman ANOVA and Kendall’s coefficient (W) tests results indicated that frugality dimensions and family cohesiveness relatedness contrasted [i.e. spending discipline and family cohesiveness, χ2 = 630, p-value = .001, W= .6, anddelayed gratification and family cohesiveness, χ2 = 463, p-value= .977, W =.4]. Fractional logit regression results revealed that, spending discipline; delayed gratification; and family cohesiveness had significant positive effects on small business financing [spending discipline, delayed gratification and family cohesiveness solely had significant positive effects in specific fractional logit models i.e. debt: asset ratio, debt: equity ratio and, bank debt: asset ratio]. However, spending discipline, delayed gratification, and family cohesiveness had significant positive effects concurrently in the nonbank debt: asset ratio fractional logit model. Furthermore, strategic openness moderation effect on family cohesiveness analyses revealed that with the competitor secretness and mixed openness interaction, superior small business financing result. Therefore, beyond the generalized resource based view (RBV) theory perspectives, additional RBV angles manifest. Particularly, frugality, strategic openness and family cohesiveness distinctly feature as significant in small firm financing resources. For pecking order theory (POT) new perspectives manifest too. Small firms concurrently use financing alternatives, use more of family and friends debt than bank debt, owners’ equity is dominant, yet equity from outsiders is marginal. All these offer new paradigms that may expand the RBV and POT perspectives in the sphere of small firms especially in developing economies.