PhD Theses

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    Career development for high school and university students in Tanzania: a conceptual model and methodological framework
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2015) Materu-Bahitsa, Mary Michael
    The purpose of the study was to put forth a conceptual model and a methodological framework for establishing a national career development service for high school and university students in Tanzania. Objectives and research questions aimed at examining the state of students' career development service in selected high schools and universities in Tanzania, assessing students' career information needs and preferences and soliciting stakeholders' views on strategies for improving provision of career development service for high school and university students. The study employed a mixed-methods research design. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. The findings revealed that students' general career preparedness was low, while the state of career development services in both high schools and universities in Tanzania was poor. Students' needs and preferences for information were evident. Students and other stakeholders' views pointed to an urgent need for career development service for high school and university students. Several challenges regarding policy and implementation were raised and strategies for the establishment and management of career development service were proposed. Informed by trends noted in the literature review and findings from this study the 'employability development' approach was used in developing a conceptual model and a methodological framework for career development service in Tanzania. The main constructs of the conceptual model are employability development, curriculum content and labour market. The methodological framework, presented in a matrix, outlines a practical guide for interpreting and implementing the ideas presented in the model. The study has several implications for the education sector, the labour market and interventions that may curb graduate un-employability and skills mismatch in Tanzania and developing countries as a whole. The study points to the plausibility of systemically addressing the challenges of youth employment (formal, informal and self-employed), graduate employment and skills mismatch through a career development perspective.
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    Participation of librarians in university governance with special reference to curriculum development: a case study of the universities of Dar es Salaam, Malawi and Capetown
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2013) Mwaimu, Pampil Dominic
    This study examined participation of Librarians in university governance with specific reference to Curriculum Development at three selected universities, namely the universities of Dar es Salaam, Malawi and Cape Town, and to propose strategies for ensuring full participation of librarians in curriculum development. The study focused on the extent to which librarians are represented in university curriculum matters and university governance and factors that enhance or deter their effective participation, academic status of librarians, perceptions of teaching staff on librarianship as an academic discipline. A review of related literature and theoretical framework provided a basis for deeper understanding of the linkages between curriculum development, the role of librarians in curriculum development vis a viz university governance. The theoretical framework was based on two models, the university bureaucracy model and the university as a collegium or community of scholars. A comparison of the two revealed that the university as a collegium or community of scholars model is the most popular and has been widely applied over the years, creating the impetus for expansion of teaching /Iibrary staff participation in governance matters in institutions of higher learning. An overview of university governance issues and concerns revealed the emergence of governance paradigms which challenge the long standing bureaucratic and scientific views of organizations. The new governance paradigms provide insights into how governance can be improved in institutions of higher learning through alternative methods which create meaningful governance change on university campuses. Empirical Data for this study was collected using a combination of methods (triangulation) and included a self administered structured and standardized questionnaire with both open and close ended questions and library research. A questionnaire was administered to 240 purposively selected respondents, including teaching staff, heads of departments, deans and directors, top administrators, librarians and student leaders. Key findings revealed that librarians are not involved in curriculum development or review due to a number of factors, including inadequate understanding on the role played by librarians in teaching, learning and curriculum development; the peripheral status accorded to librarians; lack of subject specialization, regular and institutionalized curriculum review committees, clear policy guidelines on who participates in curriculum development. Findings revealed that most teaching staff have misconceptions about the actual nature and process of curriculum review and beliefs that Iibrarians are not pro-active, aggressive or assertive enough in seeking serious representation and participation in such matters were common. The study also argues that existing traditional, hierarchical, centralized and bureaucratic library governance structures and leadership styles espouse control and militate against collegial style of governance. Lack of consultation and communication between teaching staff and librarians on curriculum review matters is also a major factor. In view of the above the study recommends that curriculum development and review praxis must be institutionalized and strengthened. This must be accompanied by professional awareness among teaching staff and rigorous training on conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of curriculum development and review. Similarly, a curriculum development and review coordinating committee should be set up to monitor and recommend to Senate policies and positions on curriculum matters. Furthermore, librarians must become subject specialists in order to competently and effectively serve the information needs of their users. In addition, they must be proactive and must develop sustainable links with teaching staff in teaching information literacy skills. The study concludes that university policy makers, administrators and scholars should decentralize existing organizational decision making processes and adopt collegial. Participatory academic management practices to ensure meaningful institutional change, efficiency and effective university governance.
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    Ethical practices of records managers in Tanzania’s government ministries
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Tweve, Julius Tunsaje
    The overall objective of this study was to investigate ethical practices of records managers in Tanzania's government ministries. Specifically, the study examined how the code of ethics is being applied in records management in Tanzania's government ministries~ determine the extent to which Records Managers adhere to ethical practices in Tanzania's government ministries; and explore the challenges Records Managers face in their attempts to adhere to ethical practices in Tanzania's government. The study adopted the Deontological theory and educators' conceptual model to undertake the study. To achieve the set objectives, the study used a mixed-methods research design to collect requisite data, which allowed it to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. The study population consisted of records managers, information and/or registry users and human resources officers. Whereas quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 20, qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. With regard to the first objective, the study established how records managers are guided, accessibility to the code of ethics in place, the available legislation and regulations to guide records managers, success of the code of ethics enforcement, and records managers' compliance with ethical practices. In connection with the second objective, the study discusses issues of records managers' adherence to ethical practices, ethical factors for adherence to ethical practices and the impact of not adherence to ethical practices. The study found that records managers in some extend comply with ethical practices but it was not established whether the code of ethics in place has an influence on this outcome. AIso the study came up with the impact of not adhering to ethical practices such as increase of corruption and bribe, lack of transparency, reduce accountability, lack of timely promotion, poor decision making to mention a few. Finally, with regard to the third objective of the study established a number of ethical challenges records managers face in information services provision. Some of the challenges are lack of code of ethics for records managers, unauthorised access to records, inadequate of integrity, and lack of impartiality. In addition, the study has also presented strategies or mechanisms that can be used to enforce records managers' adherence to ethical practices. The mechanisms are based on two main areas namely the need for further training and introduce code of ethics for records managers. Based on the research findings the study concludes that information ethics is a critical factor not only for fostering quality decision-making, planning and making of informed choices but also for getting rid of records management malpractices currently dogging the public sector. Moreover, timely access to code of ethics among professionals contributes to work ethically. As general code of ethics for public servants in Tanzania's public service has some shortcomings, it is recommended that a more viable code of ethics be introduced to plug loopholes in addition to increasing the education for records managers to foster ethical practices in records management practices.
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    Electronic records management in local government authorities; case studies of Kinondoni municipal council, Bagamoyo and Kilosa district council
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2014) Pessa, Joseph Cassian
    This research assessed the management of electronic records in Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania to establish how continued access and use of e-records generated by LGAs can be enhanced. It was conducted in three LGAs of Kinondoni, Kilosa and Bagamoyo, Lunga- Lugoba using a survey research design. A combination of the Records Life Cycle Model and functionalist perspectives formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used to collect requisite data through participant observation, questionnaire and key informants interviews. In all, 255 LGAs workers participated in the study. The collected data were analysed using SPSS. More specifically, this study examined the types of e-¬records generated by LGAs and determined how LGAs manage the e-record they generate to ensure continued access. Also, it identified problems the LGAs faced in managing e-records and appraised strategies used in optimising ERM for continued access and use in LGAs. The findings indicate that LGAs increasingly use computers for financial, tax and land information management. In the process they generate many e-records. However, the management of these e-records for continued access and use was given low priority due to inadequate support from top management, lack of appropriate policy, laws and regulations, budgetary constraints and due to lack of training opportunities and comprehensive schemes of service for records personnel. To address these challenges LGAs involve stakeholders from different Departments and IT Managers; use computerised systems to create, send, receive, capture, maintain, identify and use e-records. The study concludes that LGAs have low level of ERM, lack ERM strategy and top management support despite increasingly generating a lot of electronic records for accountability, legal responsibility and functional purposes. Moreover, ERM is not integrated in all the LGAs functions. On the basis of the findings and conclusions, concerted efforts at the National, Ministerial and LGAs level are needed in order to develop ERM policy and legislative as well as ERM infrastructure, prepare separate budgets and train workers on proper management of e-records.
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    Adoption and use of scholarly communication web based tools in Tanzania’s universities
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Muneja, Paul Samwel
    This study investigated the adoption and use of scholarly communication Web-based tools in universities in Tanzania. Specifically, the study determined the researchers' awareness and usage of scholarly communication Web-based tools; examined the methods used and examined the challenges faced by scholars in communicating scholarly information. This study employed a cross-sectional research design that used a mixed method research approach. The study sample was drawn from the selected six universities in Tanzania. The findings of this study show that most of the respondents had skills and experience of using the Internet. However, adoption and use of Web¬ based tools in scholarly communication was found to be very minimal. It was revealed that Web 2.0 tools were mostly used for social networking rather than sharing scholarly content. It was also found that respondents with young age had mostly used Web-based tools. Likewise, most respondents with low level of education indicated high frequency of using Web-based tools in sharing scholarly output. It was also revealed that most of the respondents had published in local journals most of which were in print format and very few had published online. The key challenges were found to include lack of publishing and sharing policies, lack of formal trainings and lack of institutional support. This study concludes that universities in Tanzania should adopt policies for sharing and publishing scholarly materials. Moreover, training programmes on scholarly communication should be integrated in universities' curricular and establishment of sustainable research and publication funding mechanisms.
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    Challenges of journal collection development and management in selected academic and research libraries in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2013) Msonge, Vincent Tilubuzya
    This study investigated the challenges that academic and research libraries in Tanzania experience in their quest to enhance and sustain systematic journal collection development and management and sought views and suggestions in order to ensure constant availability and access to scholarly journals. The study adopted the Evans Model of Collection Development. Six purposively selected institutions participated in this study. A triangulation approach for data gathering was adopted. In the first instance, a structured and standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 339 respondents who were randomly selected. The population sample comprised library staff, teaching staff and researchers. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 library directors and 6 heads of periodicals sections to complement the questionnaire survey. Data were analyzed using PASW and content analysis. Key findings revealed that journal collection development in academic and research libraries in Tanzania is constrained by inadequate funding; lack of policies to guide collection development; low level of involvement of stakeholders in the selection process; lack of support and commitment from management and limited training opportunities for library staff on IT skills. Findings further revealed that journal collection development is donor dependent. A major recommendation to this study is that librarians should lobby top management to consistently allocate adequate funding for journal collection development activities and should also explore alternative ways to generate income internally in order to meet user information needs
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    Gender analysis of information communication technology adoption into teaching, learning and research by faculty and students of selected universities in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2013) Katunzi-Mollel, Kokuberwa Rehema Upendo
    Using gender as a tool for analysis, the study investigated the extent of ICT adoption in teaching, learning and research in four purposefully selected Universities in Tanzania. Literature review on adoption of ICTs in education and higher education in Africa and Tanzania revealed the absence of comprehensive studies on ICTs to support the core functions of the Universities. A descriptive research design, which utilized a blend of methodological approaches, was used in this study. The sample comprised of 150 faculty members, 481 students, and 19 key informants. Data were collected through questionnaire, key informant interviews and participants observation and were analyzed using SPSS. Results of the study revealed that, Universities have made modest progress in developing ICT infrastructure to support both academic and administrative functions. However, unequal levels of access to computers between and among faculty and students were observed; while most faculty members have ample access to a connected computer; students are restricted in accessing computers and the Internet. The study revealed that, Faculty members and students are highly engaged with the computer and the Internet; mainly for word processing, e-mails, and to access information for teaching and assignments. The study found no significant gender disparity in the utilisation of computers, computer competence and attitudes towards ICTs. Findings revealed that, female respondents have less access to computer than their males counterparts. Barriers that limit adoption of ICTs were mainly at the institutional level and comprise of inadequate computing facilities; unreliability of the available technologies; lack of technical, pedagogical and administrative support; and lack of institutional policy to guide the implementation of ICTs in teaching and learning processes. Concerted efforts are required at the National, Ministerial and Institutional levels to increase availability, access and adoption of ICTs in higher education institutions.
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    Enhancing farmers’ access to and use of agricultural information for empowerment and improved livelihoods: a case of Morogoro region, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2008) Matovelo, Doris Siima
    This study aimed at exploring and testing an intervention that could stimulate and promote the practice of proactive information acquisition by farmers as a strategy for empowerment, reduction of poverty and improvement of livelihoods. It was conducted in Morogoro region in Tanzania in two main stages; the situation analysis survey stage in ten villages, and a longitudinal participatory action-oriented stage which was an intervention phase in four villages. The Village Information Centre (VIC) model was established, monitored and evaluated. This was preceded by the pre-intervention knowledge test in the four research villages and two control villages. Descriptive statistics and frequency distribution of variables were computed, a chi-square test and a regression. analysis for selected sets of variables were done. The majority of farmers were between 28-47 years old. Slightly more than half (56%) of all farmers had completed primary school education. Furthermore, 76% of the farmers had functional literacy, and 55% of all respondents had a habit of reading at least once in several months. Close to 90% of all respondents had some printed information in their homes, with newspapers being the most common item. The VIC was highly acceptable in all villages, but the age, level of education and gender were significant factors (p S 0.05) influencing awareness of, visits to and use of the VIC. Farmers revealed diverse and unmet information needs that were not necessarily related to their agricultural activities. The "push" phenomenon inherent in some extension approaches may have led most farmers to develop passive recipience that does not necessarily promote a "pull" phenomenon. Exposure to information is probably needed in order to stimulate a demand for information. The VIC initiative has also demonstrated the presence of reading skills that are under-utilized. This is a challenge and opportunity for information professionals. Therefore it is recommended that documentary information workers prepare a strategy, which will have a complementary role to the regular extension services, on enhancing the practice of proactive information acquisition by farmers for their own empowerment and improvement of their livelihoods.
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    Access and utilization of HIV/ AIDS information in rural areas in Tanzania: a case study of Kisarawe district
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2014) Chande-Mallya, Rehema
    This study examines the access to and utilisation of HIV/AIDS information in rural areas using Kisarawe District as a case study. The research was conducted in 15 purposively selected villages in the district. It adopted Shannon and Weaver's Model of Information Communication in which representation of message from the information source is transmitted using signals to the receiver and lastly the communicated messages reach the final destination. This cross-sectional survey uses a mixed method approach to collect data. A standardised and structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 342 randomly selected respondents aged between 18 and 49 years old. Key informant interviews were conducted with 33 care givers/health officials and village leaders. Furthermore, I 19 respondents participated in the Focus Group Discussions. The collected quantitative data were processed and analysed using a Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS). Qualitative data, on the other hand, were subjected to content analysis. The study established that radio is the most popular communication channel (by 80%) used to access and disseminate HIV/AIDS information, followed by newspapers (28%), television (28%), health centres (20%), friends (16%), drama and song (16%), posters and brochures (15%), village meetings (13%) and school teachers (I 1%).The least cited channels were family members (4%), religious leaders (4%) and the internet (1%). A number of governmental and non-governmental organisations disseminate I1IV/AIDS information and conduct HIV/AIDS sensitisation seminars in 'he study area. A majority of the respondents (94%) were found to be knowledgeable about I-IIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission prevention and care. Generally, most respondents (80%) felt that sharing of information and discussions on HIV / AIDS is the best way of raising awareness on prevention. On the basis of these findings, the study recommends that health facilities and Voluntary Counselling Testing (VCTs) services should be relocated within walking distance to encourage their effective usage. It is further recommended that the rural infrastructure should be improved to facilitate communication and HIV/AIDS information dissemination. Finally, the study recommends three areas for future research: First, to determine information communication channels used in Kagera region in mitigating against HIV/ AIDS; second, the contributions of information usage in the communities of Manyara (2.7%) and Dodoma (2%) regions which have lower IIIV/ AIDS prevalence rates and third. a study determines the most effective communication channels for I-IIV/AIDS information systems in rural areas.
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    Information seeking behaviour of distance learning students in the hybrid environment: a case study of the Open University of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2013) Luambano, Ireneus Vincent
    The main purpose of this study was to examine information seeking behaviour of undergraduate distance learning students. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying information sources that they use, examining how and why they seek information, examining factors influencing their information seeking behaviour, and getting ideas on strategies of improving their access to and use of information resources. The study involved the Open University of Tanzania, and was carried out in Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Morogoro and Kigoma regions. Data was collected from 261 respondents through questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and documentary review. The findings revealed that library and information service support to undergraduate distance learning students was inadequate as noted by lack of relevant and up-to-date reading materials in public libraries as well as lack of public library support for students in some regions. Moreover, ICT application in supporting students' access to information was inadequate, as noted by lack of computers with Internet connectivity in public libraries and lack of computer laboratories in some regions, which forced students to rely on print sources of information alone or rely on expensive Internet cafes. Lack of awareness of scholarly online e-resources and inadequate search skills are some other factors for their low use of e-resources. Students from more remote regions had poorer information access infrastructure. This study recommends computerisation of public libraries and equipping them with relevant resources in both print and electronic formats for access by students, provision of reliable and affordable access to e-resources to students, as well as prioritising in awareness creation of scholarly e-resources available and information literacy programmes.
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    The potential of integration of web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning activities in selected Tanzania universities
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Kazoka, James Ernest
    This study examined the potential of the integration of Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning activities in five universities in Tanzania. It was conducted at the University of Dar es Salaam, the Open University of Tanzania, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences and Tumaini University Dar es Salaam College. Probability and non probability sampling techniques were used to select 475 faculty members and students participated in this study. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and documentary review. The study findings showed that Web 2.0 technologies and services were used in both academic and non¬academic activities. Faculty members and students used Web 2.0 technologies for educational purpose, communication, searching for news, sharing links and making of friends. The potential of integrating Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning include collaboration in doing class assignments, discussion, communication, developing and sharing of ideas and course contents in the teaching and learning process. However, the extent to which Web 2.0 tools were being integrated in teaching and learning remained limited. The study findings also revealed several challenges regarding the integration of Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning activities such as lack of familiarity with Web 2.0 tools and its viability in teaching and learning activities, lack of time for exploring the viability of Web 2.0 in teaching and learning, lack of technical support from the university, and slow internet connection. As such, the study recommends awareness creation for university management and faculty members in the face of slow adoption and integration of emerging technologies such as Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning activities. Furthermore, technical support on proper design and use of Web 2.0 technologies in teaching and learning activities should be provided to faculty members and students.
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    The role of effectiveness of information and communication channels in the adoption of improved cook-stoves in Arusha region, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2017) Enock, Gideon
    This study examined the role and effectiveness of information and communication channels in the adoption of improved cook-stoves in Arusha Region, Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined availability and accessibility of ICS information, effectiveness of information and communication channels used and factors influencing effective utilization of ICS information in Meru and Monduli District councils. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory (001) supplemented by Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Technology Acceptance Model guided this study. The sample involved four hundred and sixty seven respondents. These were selected using purposive, multi-stage, stratified and simple random sampling. Data were collected using questionnaire, FGDs and Key Informant Interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 whereas qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. Data collected using questionnaire are presented in form of descriptive statistics, that is, frequency tables, figures and cross-tabulations while data acquired through FGD and KII are presented in narrative form. The findings of this study indicate that ICS information is available and accessible in the study area. However, the degree of availability and accessibility varies significantly. For example, interpersonal communication is highly used compared to mainstream mass media channels. With respect to the second objective, the study findings indicate that there is inadequate planning of ICS communication because communication assessment is inadequately done, hence rendering ineffective communication. The study findings further show that awareness and knowledge creation is mostly done via interpersonal communication rather than through conventional mass media and persuasive communication is hardly applied. Regarding post ICS adoption, findings revealed that there is inadequate post-ICS adoption communication. Pertaining to third objective, findings indicate that financial constraints and negligence of the effects of traditional stoves are major factors militating against widespread utilisation of ICS. The study findings regarding fourth objective indicate that communication on potential benefits of ICS and their appropriate use should be widened to reach the majority of potential users in the communities under study to enhance their understanding and comprehension On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that there is inadequate information to influence and sustain ICS adoption decision and mismatch between information, communication channels and ICS adoption process which subsequently result into ineffective communication. Thus, the study appeals for harmonization of these key elements for meaningful ICS adoption
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    Information needs and information seeking behaviour of orphans in selected public primary schools in Kinondoni district, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Bitegela, Elizabeth Edward
    The purpose of the study was to find out the information needs and seeking behaviour of orphans in selected public primary schools in Kinondoni District. More specifically, it identified information needs and seeking behaviour of orphans, sources and channels of information used by orphans and caregivers to access information and problems they face. Finally, strategies needed to improve information access to orphans. The study used a combination of instruments to collect data including questionnaire, interviews, observations and documentary reviews. A total of 212 respondents participated in the study. Data was processed and analysed using SPSS programme and content analysis. The findings reveal that information being essential factor in enabling proper decision¬making and informed choices, it was not effectively accessed by majority of the orphans. Furthermore, findings indicate that, although orphans had a wide range of information needs, these needs were largely not met due to financial constraints, lack of awareness of key sources of information due to low literacy levels and inadequate information search skills. The findings show that the key sources and channels of information which, are used by orphans to access information include teachers, the radio, friends and relatives whereas caregivers and teachers use radio and community meetings to access information. On the basis of the study findings, the study recommends the following: the government should support and complement efforts of NGOs that support orphans. In addition, the government and other private organizations in collaboration with Tanzania library services should establish information resource centres or libraries in every public primary school, which should be stocked with information on orphans' issues in Kiswahili language. Finally, NGOs dealing with orphans and legal issues and religious institutions should organize seminars and workshops for orphans, caregivers and teachers on orphans' needs, rights and obligation.
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    The contribution of indigenous Agro-biodiversity knowledge management practices for improving livelihoods of local communities: a case study of Masasi and Nachingwea districts in Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Malekani, Andrew Watson
    The study was conducted in Lindi (Nachingwea district) and Mtwara (Masasi district) to investigate and document existing indigenous knowledge practices on management of agro-biodiversity and show how Nonaka and Konnos' 1998 KM model (Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization (SECI)) can be applied to manage indigenous knowledge related to agro-biodiversity in local communities. Combined with Adapted Sustainable Livelihood model, the study also sought to investigate how such knowledge contributes to livelihoods of local communities. This study employed a mixed research design, using cross-sectional and case study designs. The study population was drawn from small holder farmers, village leaders, and Indigenous Knowledge (IK) intermediaries. Purposive sampling was used to select districts, villages, key informants and participants for Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Systematic sampling was used to select heads of households. Their names were picked from the village government register. The total sample for this study was 230 heads of households, 16 key informants (village leaders), 4 indigenous knowledge intermediaries (extension and forest officers) and 80 participants from Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 16.0 was used to generate frequencies and percentages. Quantitative data was analyzed quantitatively. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Key findings revealed that local communities possess a wide range of indigenous knowledge on soil fertility, intercropping, seed storage, cultivation methods, moisture preservation, and crop preservation. Findings further revealed that fire, fallow and buffer zones are used to demarcate protected areas and village by laws to guide land usage. Findings further revealed that farmers rely heavily on tacit knowledge as opposed to recorded knowledge. The study concluded that farmers create new knowledge through face-to-face and group interactions, folklore, carvings and initiation rites and that IK is largely transferred through oral tradition and demonstrations and is preserved in human minds. The study recommends that KM practices on management of agro-biodiversity should be the responsibility of communities, village authorities, public and private sectors and that the government and private agro-biodiversity actors should foster KM practices on management of agro-biodiversity by engaging communities in the identification, mapping, dissemination and preservation of IK and should conduct user studies to determine areas for intervention. These will help local communities to sustain their farming systems and hence ensure their livelihoods.
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    Access to use of agricultural information in poverty alleviation: a case of agropastoralists in Kilosa and Monduli districts, Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2016) Silayo, Ephraem Epafra
    The study examined the extent to which access to and use of agricultural information facilitates poverty alleviation among agropastoralists in Kilosa and Monduli districts in Tanzania. The objectives of the study were to determine agricultural information needs of agropastoralists, to examine the types of agricultural information channels that are accessible to agropastoralists in Kilosa and Monduli districts, to determine factor influencing access to agricultural information in poverty alleviation among agropastoralists and to assess the extent to which agropastoralists in Kilosa and Monduli Districts use agricultural information channels to alleviate poverty. Multistage and purposive sampling techniques were used to obtain respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions, key informant interviews (Klls), and non-participant observation. Whereas quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data were analysed thematically through content analysis. Findings of the study show that the majority of the respondents have large unmet agricultural information needs. Most of the popular channels used for accessing agricultural information were interpersonal communication channels, mobile telephone and the radio. The study findings further indicate that access to agricultural information is influenced by demographic and socio-economic factors which, in turn, dictated variations in the achievement of poverty alleviation indicators. Prominent also are improved housing conditions, food security, income, and capability to support attainment of quality education. Based on the study findings, it is concluded that agricultural information for better livestock and crop farming is inadequately met because agropastoralists were unable to consistently interact with different communication channels available for agricultural purposes. Based on these findings, it is recommended that Theatre for Development Technique (TFD), participatory information sharing networks, library services in rural settings and agricultural trainings should be established and used to empower agropastoralists to understand their agricultural information needs and relevant channels and use them for accessing such information. Moreover, adult education programmes in rural settings should also integrate language and information literacy training to empower agropastoralist with agricultural information search skills and techniques.
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    Performance assessment of the national health management information system in the Eastern zone of Tanzania
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2012) Mungwabi, Hosea Njoghomi
    This study investigated factors constraining the effective performance of the National Health Management Information System in Tanzania, inter alia, health staff participation in systems development, systems requirements from the users’ perspectives, the impact made so far and the sustainability mechanisms at various levels of the system. Descriptive research design was employed to gain deeper insight into the subject matter and ensure that the evidence collected answered the research questions. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, a questionnaire with both open and closed ended questions, observations, documentary review and informal discussions. Purposively selected 155 male and female health personnel participated in this study. The study investigated both functional and non-functional characteristics of the HMIS and revealed that identification of training needs, re-organization of computer facilities, database interfaces and clear understanding of reasons for poor systems and information use, delays in data transfer and variation in impact between individuals and health facilities are critical to smooth functioning of the HMIS. This study applied systems approach to problem solving, in which the entire system was decomposed to identify actual as opposed to perceived problems. In so doing, this study found errors and omissions made in requirements analysis, leading to dysfunctional systems. Findings reveal that the methodology used to develop the Tanzania’s HMIS was standard and that users were involved right from the beginning. Furthermore, the HMIS has greatly enhanced health staff ability to identify health issues, and has improved their confidence and ability to supervise subordinates at health facility level. However, since most of them are not involved in planning and decision-making their impact in health institutions management is negligible. Furthermore, the existing mechanism for sustainability of the HMIS varies at all levels. Government-owned health facilities cannot sustain the HMIS due to funding constraints and because they have no mandate to use health cost-sharing revenues. Nevertheless, districts and regions and ministry can sustain the system if they are aware of the importance of HMIS. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the system’s quality, information quality, data transfer and HMIS facilities should be improved to improve access and effective use of the resources. Similarly, more computers should be purchased including standby generators. Furthermore, IT sections in each district medical office should be established and manned by trained computer and information specialists. It is further recommended that Local Area Networks, Wide Area Networks and Internet should be launched, and training and retraining should be an integral part of HMIS management.