Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Communities’ Livelihoods and Natural Resources Management in North Western Highlands of Tanzania.

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University of Dar es salaam
Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Communities’ Livelihoods and Natural Resources Management in North Western Highlands of Tanzania. Edmund Mabbuye PHD philosophy (Climate Change and Sustainable Development) University of Dar es salaam, Institute of Resource Assessment, 2019 This study analysed the impacts of climate change and variability on communities’ livelihood and natural resources management in north western highlands of Tanzania. Specifically, the study was undertaken in Buhingwe and Kasulu district in Kigoma Region. The aim was to understand communities vulnerability to be impacts of climate and non- climate processes particularly with regards to livelihoods and natural resources management. Study sites and respondents were selected through simple random and purposive sampling methods. Data were collected through household surveys, key information interviews, and focus group discussions. Remote sensed and meteorological data were used for analysis of land use and climatic changes accordingly. Quantitative data analysis tools included GIS, and meteorological statistics software such as clidata, INSTANT, XLSTAT and SPSS. Theme-content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Findings indicate inter-annual and seasonal variability of rainfall and temperature levels from the normal across the study sites. Study revealed significant increasing trends for mean annual maximum and minimum temperature. Major changes in rainfall patterns were decreasing trend of seasonal and annual rainfall, amount, and reduced number of rainfall in a season, unreliable onset and cessation of rainfall, erratic seasonal rainfall and increase in rainfall intensity. Maximum decline of seasonal rainfall had slope value of -24, 51. While maximum decline of annual rainfall trends had slope value of -12.76. The minimum decline for seasonal rainfall had slope values of -2.17 and annual rainfall trends had slope values of -1.36. Villages in the highland zone were found to be highly vulnerable index value. Major to the impacts of climate and non-climate stress factors with 0.61 vulnerability index value. Major climate stress factors for communities’ vulnerability included seasonal shifts of rainfall and increase of temperature, which had effects on crop production and livestock keeping such as increase of pests and diseases, low agricultural yields and decrease in income. Non-climate stress factors such as landscape characteristics, poverty, mobility, inadequate extension services low income and poor agronomic facilities might have been accelerating the effects of the changing climate on communities’ livelihoods and natural resources management. Communities’ response strategies included migration to other areas for spatial utilization of resources (e.g. highland-lowland interaction) and adoption of new livelihood activities, adoption of altenative crop cultivars and breeds, and use of traditional and modern pesticides and insecticides for treating crop and livestock pests and diseases. Generally, changing climate is driven by both natural and human processes. Changes in climate condition have had effects on communities’ livelihoods, and natural resources management. Therefore, given current and uncertainties, and regarding future climate conditions, concerted efforts are required to support adaptation strategies to sustain communities’ livelihoods and natural resources management in the context of the changing climate. Adaptation measures can include early warning systems, post-harvest management, awareness raising, alternative crop cultivars and animal breeds, and environmental friendly activities such as beekeeping for food and income generation. Other adaption measures can include supporting collaborative approaches in natural resources management. Such as community bases forest management.
Available in print form, East Africana collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, class mark (THS EAF QC903.2.T34M323 )
Climate change,, Natural resources management,, North western highlands,, Natural resources communal,, Community owened natural resources,, Tanzania
Mabbuye, E (2019)Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Communities’ Livelihoods and Natural Resources Management in North Western Highlands of Tanzania.Doctoral dissertation,University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam