Impacts of livelihoods diversification on land use management practices in Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
In recent years livelihoods diversification has become one of the survival strategy for rural households in Africa. In Rungwe District, households have diversified their livelihoods activities to improve their income and food security. This study assessed impacts of livelihoods diversification on land use management practices (LMPs) in six villages, namely Kikota, Ilolo, Idweli, Ntokela, Masukulu and Ijigha of Rungwe District. The overall objective was to enhance an understanding of the impacts of livelihoods diversification on LMPs so as to contribute to existing knowledge on livelihoods diversification and LMPs and to enrich the theories that relate to the study. Methods of data collection comprised of documentary review, Remote Sensing and GIS, household interviews, focused group discussion (FGDs), key informant interviews (KIIs), transect walks and field observation. A total of 253 households were interviewed. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 20 and Excel spreadsheet. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the impact of livelihoods diversification on LMPs while through a Chi-square test the associations between influencing factors and livelihoods activities were tested. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The findings were presented in various ways, including tables, graphs and maps. The study results showed that there are various livelihoods activities in the study villages such as crop cultivation, livestock keeping, trade and wage labour. Livelihoods diversification was influenced by factor like markets, climate, population, land shortages, institutions, policies, biophysical factors and livelihoods assets. LMPs like mixed cropping, continuous cultivation and flat cultivation dominated the area. The multiple regression analysis showed that livelihoods diversification had a significant impact on LMPs. Livelihoods diversification has led to the commercialisation of land, labour and food crops; changes in cropping patterns and crop composition; increased use of some LMPs;deforestation and change in land use/cover.The study concluded that despite diversity of livelihoods activities, agriculture has remained the main occupation of households in Rungwe District. Commercialisation of crops has made some food crops to be important sources of income in the area. Livelihoods diversification was found to be important not only for improving livelihoods but also for environmental conservation. Market had appeared to be a strong factor in influencing livelihoods diversification in the area.It is recommended that livelihoods activities which are environmental friendly should be encouraged. The government should provide subsidies and improve farmers’ access to farm inputs and encourage private sectors to provide financial support and make necessary inputs available close to households. Also, market conditions and transport services should be improved to enhace livelihoods diversification in rural area.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF HD311.T34S258)
Management, Diversification
Samwel, A (2019) Impacts of livelihoods diversification on land use management practices in Tanzania, Doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.