Strategies for improving teachers’ morale to the teaching career in Songea municipality public secondary schools, Tanzania

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Dar es Salaam
The study explored the strategies for enhancing teachers’ morale to the teaching career in Tanzania public secondary schools by taking the case of Songea municipality. More specifically, the study aimed to: (1) identify the morale of teachers to the teaching career; (2) examine the factors that contribute to the existing teachers’ morale; and (3) explore the strategies for improving the existing teachers’ morale to the teaching career. The conceptual framework which guides the study was drawn from Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation. The study employed qualitative approach using multiple-embedded case study design. The data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and documentary review. The sample from which the data were obtained consists of 20 teachers, 28 students, four school heads. Others were 12 parents, one municipal secondary education officer, and one Tanzania Teachers’ Union District Secretary. This makes a sample of 66 respondents who were selected using purposeful sampling techniques (criterion purposeful and random purposeful techniques). The data then were subjected to content analysis following Miles and Huberman (1994) framework of qualitative data analysis. The study findings established that teachers’ status and work morale were low. The teachers’ low morale was a result of several factors such as poor leadership and school management, poor working and leaving conditions (low salary, shortage of teachers’ houses, delayed promotion, inadequate teaching and learning materials), lack of recognition, complexity of teaching career, lack of in-service training, and lack of professional autonomy. In regard to the strategies, the findings indicate that job content factors such as recognition and prestige, career development, and professional autonomy, as well as job context factors such as improved salary and allowances, good leadership and school management, involvement in decision making, and good staff-community relationship were equally identified to be the key strategies for raising teachers’ work morale. The study concludes that the school heads employed more or less similar strategies for enhancing teachers’ work morale. The strategies such as provision of breakfast and lunch which focused mainly on satisfying the lower-order needs were found to be less effective in enhancing teachers’ work morale. The study further concludes that skills on school management and leadership are the driving force towards realizing teachers’ work morale. Therefore, effective handling of context and content factors requires well trained and qualified school heads on leadership and school management. The study recommends that it is important for the responsible authorities to ensure that those who are appointed to be school heads are equipped with appropriate skills necessary for creating an enabling school climate for teachers to work comfortably. This can be done through systematizing the recruitment of teachers to become heads of schools based on explicit professional criteria, and professionalizing the position of school head and develop certification courses in school management and leadership. The study further recommends that improvement of conditions of service for teachers, providing teachers with professional autonomy and in-service training for updating knowledge and skills necessary for addressing new changes, are the most promising points of intervention towards raising the teachers’ work morale.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF LB2832.4.T34N96)
Teacher morale, Secondary schools, Teaching profession, Songea municipality, Tanzania
Nyondo, N. (2015) Strategies for improving teachers’ morale to the teaching career in Songea municipality public secondary schools, Tanzania , Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam