Agricultural production in a changing climate and its implications to farmers’ adaptation in Kilosa district, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study was conducted in Kilosa district with the aim of examining agricultural production in a changing climate and its implication to farmers‟ adaptation. The district Agro-ecological zones vary ranging from semi-arid to humid climate with three agro ecological zones of Flood plain, Plateau, and Highland. The study also analysed socio-economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in the study area, factors affecting agricultural production, effects of climate change and variability in agriculture production, and challenges and opportunities on agricultural production and adaptation options in the context of climate change and variability in the study area. The study used structured and semi-structured interview to collect data from smallholder farmers, government officials and experts, and secondary data from published and unpublished sources. The data were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Three villages of Chanzuru, Kondoa, and Ilonga were chosen from the district as study sites. Results indicated that the level of education, gender, age, and wealth of the head of household; social capital, and agro-ecological settings, all compromises the ability of the farmers to adapt to climate change and variability. This leads to the suggestion that, there is a need for serious awareness campaign on the causes of climate change in the study area and several adaptation strategies that can be put in place. Analysis of climate data showed that there is a change/ variation in both rainfall (Severe flood, changes in rainfall amount as well as changes in rainfall patterns) and temperature (excessive temperature, moisture components). These changes and variability in climatic conditions causes soil fertility loss, soil erosion problem and consequently lead to an overall decrease in income of small-scale farmers, and so does to adaptation of climate change. Results further showed that technical factors such as poor extension services, poor policy, lack of agriculture subsidies, lack of climate information services and social economic factors such as lack of security of land, poor tenure system, lack of reliable market, and lack of farmers cooperatives has significant effects on appropriate adaptation to climate change and variability on agricultural activities in the study area. Study findings revealed various challenges and opportunity associated with the changes/ variability in climate in the study area. Challenges include changes in family income, changes in family role and responsibilities as well as changes in division of labour. Opportunities include employment opportunities as well as diversification of economic activities
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF QC093.2.T34M37)
Climatic changes, Agriculture, Tanzania, Kilosa district, Lindi region
Maro, N.J. (2015) Agricultural production in a changing climate and its implications to farmers’ adaptation in Kilosa district, Tanzania, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam