Challenges of rapid urban population growth on domestic water supply and consumption patterns: the case study of urban district – Zanzibar

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University of Dar es Salaam
With no flicker of doubt, Zanzibar Town currently is having a water scarcity problem. Due to the rapid urban population growth and increase of economic and social activities the resource can no longer keep pace with the growing demands and the current water management strategies. Cases of scarcity of domestic water supply and unhygienic water conditions were reported in all parts of the municipality. The reason for this is the rapid urban population growth and the expansion of the municipality in current years.The main objective of this study was to investigate challenges of rapid urban populationgrowth on domestic water supply and consumption patterns in Zanzibar municipality. The study involved 200 households whereby qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis were employed and comes up with the following major findings.This study has revealed that, there has been very high population growth in the municipality just after the revolution of 1964. The urbanization in Zanzibar town growing at a very fast rate. In August 2002, the population o0f Tanzania Zanzibar reached a total of 984,625 people, with a growth rate over the period 1988-2002 of 3.1 percent per annum. The Zanzibar, urban west region recorded the highest population growth rate of 4.5%. the projection of the urban population of the municipality is estimated to rise up to 483,000 in 2015. Findings revealed 69.0 percent of the respondents were migrants while 31.0 percent were born in the municipality. The fast pace of growth indicates continuous substantial migration from rural areas to Zanzibar municipality.The existing water network system in the study area is also unevenly distributed among the planned and unplanned areas. Most of unplanned areas are partially served with piped water. It is usual case in Zanzibar municipality that, having been connected to water a piped water system does not necessarily means that the residents are supplied with water. The survey investigated that about 97.0 percent of the respondents have water shortages particularly in dry season. With regard to water they get is of poor quality.This study also revealed that water demands for Zanzibar municipality increased from 30,000m3 per day in 1995 to 90,000m3 per day in 2015. The water production capability has been worsening with time, although other sources have been found but most of the old ones are abandoned. The total average daily production in Zanzibar urban areas is about 20,500m3, though the capacity is rated at more than the required 30,00m3.For sustainability of Zanzibar municipality water supply, the study found that two strong immediate actions were taken. First, the Revolution Government of Zanzibar established the autonomous organ of Zanzibar Water Authority (ZAWA) instead of the former. Department of Water Second, a comprehensive rehabilitation of the existing water supply system and establishing new water sources sponsored by the Japanese government both technically and financially, has been put in place.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class Mark (THS EAF HB850.5.Z35M63)
Population growth, Water supply, Urban population growth, Domestic water supply
Mohamed, M. K (2009) Challenges of rapid urban population growth on domestic water supply and consumption patterns: the case study of urban district – Zanzibar, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam