Teaching science on limited resources with specific reference to chemistry

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Date
1978
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
University of Dar es Salaam
Abstract
The prosperity of a country increasingly depends upon the number of scientists and technologists it employs. These can be produced only if there is adequate training in basic science in the schools. A growing shortage of such scientists and technologists had over recent years, become a source of concern to the Party and Government, and much thought is now being given to the correction of this situation. The purpose of this study, as outlined in chapter one, is to investigate the effects of limited resources on the teaching of science; specific reference is made to the teaching of chemistry (the largest consumer of resources at the secondary school level) using a sample of Dar es Saalaam schools. The resources considered were time, and financial, human and physical resources. Most of the data, as outlined in chapter two, were collected through questionnaires information obtained through the questionnaire; was supplemented by information obtained through interviews and by documentation. The results are presented in chapter three; the commercial bias is the most common in Dar es Salaam secondary schools, while there is no technically biased secondary school. It seems from these results that Biasing or Vocationalization may be having a negative effect on science education. The results show a shortage of all the resources considered. Time devoted to teaching science is inadequate; the number of teachers and technicians need to be increased; the allowance for the purchase of science teaching materials is inadequate, and demand for necessary materials is not met by suppliers. Teachers neither use materials from local industries and organizations, nor do they make their own apparatus. Moreover, the schools lack maintenance and repair facilities. As a result there is a serious rundown of stock in all the schools. The study has revealed, therefore, that shortages of resources have led to a decrease both in pupils practical work and in teacher demonstrations, making the teaching of chemistry theoretical. It is difficult in the circumstances to develop the pupils reasoning and deductive powers their ability to observe, to manipulate apparatus and to develop a scientific spirit and attitude. It is recommended that: 1. All schools should have a uniform, consistent number of periods; say, four periods per week in all forms. 2. The government should issue a formula for allocating funds to the various departments. It should also increase the allowance for science, together with strengthening: the position of the suppliers. 3. Teachers should be provided with technicians, who should also be trained in the maintenance and repair of equipment. 4. Teachers both in the field and in training, should be given courses on how to make use of materials available in industries and institutions around them. Teachers should also be encouraged to be innovative, and to seek alternatives to experimental work prescribed in the scheme of work, in order to reduce the costs of science education and to stimulate learning.
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Available in print form
Keywords
Science, Study and teaching, Tanzania
Citation
Kisanga, M. E (1978) Teaching science on limited resources with specific reference to chemistry,Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (http://41.86.178.3/internetserver3.1.2/detail.aspx?parentpriref= )