An Assessment of HIMA natural resource conservation and land use project in primary schools in Makete district.

No Thumbnail Available
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this study was to assess the dissemination of environmental education in primary schools with reference to natural resources conservation and land use project. In order to achieve this purpose the study sought to assess: 1. The implementation of Natural Resources Conservation or HIMA training policy in schools with focus to inputs; 2. Methods and approaches used to disseminate environmental education to the pupils and the local community; 3. The attitude of the pupils and the local community towards HIMA activities and various aspects that showed the level of behavioural change towards environmental issues. The study was conducted in two primary schools and villages respectively in Makete district with 98 respondents who included project officers, district education officers, headteachers, teachers, pupils and local community. All of them were selected through objective sampling. Data were collected through documentary review, individual depth interview, focus group discussion, drawing, writing and observation. Eventually, qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The main findings of the study indicated that: (a) HIMA had sound and well articulated environmental policy which was clearly stipulated in their training policy of 1989 with major focus on soil and water conservation, agroforestry and sustainable land use. (b) Teaching materials such as textbooks, pictures, posters graphics, leaflets etc. were inadequate. HIMA did not provide teaching and learning materials to schools, this inturn hampered effective learning of environmental education. (c) HIMA had tried to employ a combination of teaching and learning methods (eclectic approach) such as seminars, workshops, demonstration and study tours in disseminating environmental education both at schools and the local community, consequently, this had yielded minimal outcomes. (d) Pupils were aware of environmental degradation and conservation taking place in their locality, but the application of environmental knowledge and skills beyond their school limits was minimal. (e) Since environmental education in the light of HIMA was not incorporated in the school curriculum; teachers were at their own discretion to teach/or not to teach because HIMA had no control over them. Thus, from these findings it is quite clear that, the dissemination of environmental education for sustainable development in schools and local community had been unsuccessful. On the basis of the findings it was concluded that: First, there was need to change the approach in the process of disseminating environmental education. The local community should be involved in environmental conservation activities rather than the use of much money for seminars and study tours. Second, there was need to coalesce traditional environmental conservation knowledge with modern approaches in order to attain outmost cooperation and participation from the local community. Third, the rate of deforestation could be minimized it alternative sources of fuel such as solar energy could be introduced. Also the local community should be compelled to participate in environmental conservation through village by-laws. Lastly, for effective outcomes HIMA should promote maximum cooperation with the education authority to incorporate her themes in the school curriculum. Based on these findings and conclusions it is recommended that a comparative assessment study of different NGOs in different ecological setting which involve schools/local community towards environmental conservation could be conducted.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF HC79.C3M9)
Natural resource, Conservation, Natural resources conservation, Tanzania
Mwalongo, T. M. (1999). An Assessment of HIMA natural resource conservation and land use project in primary schools in Makete district. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.