Adaptation strategies to climate change induced impacts on mangrove ecosystem: a case of Rufiji District, Pwani Region, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study aimed at identifying the adaptation strategies to climate change induced impacts on mangrove ecosystem in Rufiji district so as to reduce mangroves ecological vulnerability; and enhance resilience and adaptive capacity for both coastal communities and mangrove ecosystem against impacts of climate change in Rufiji District. The study used descriptive design, both qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection including questionnaire, interviews, field observation and focus group discussion. A sample size range of 5-10% was used to calculate a sample of the total households in the study area. Also the study involved key informants and village executive officers for data collection. Results from communities perceptions (90.6%) indicated that there are changes in rainfall (both dry and wet years); while almost 89.6% of respondents agreed on the declining of rainfall in the study area. Also rainfall data from Rufiji meteorological station showed that there was no significant change in rainfall availability. The study revealed that the social-economic activities of the people particularly farming were impacted by climate change induced impacts. It was observed that majority of famers in the lower delta migrated from the upland areas, which were the most affected by climate extremes notably drought towards the delta with conditionally favor paddy cultivation. The study noted that majority of the farmers migrated towards the delta along the mangrove concentrated areas due to the fact that cultivating inside the mangroves areas is less costly as it involves only two phases of paddy cultivation (e.g. Planting and Harvesting) because cultivating in side mangrove forest does not need weeding. The study revealed that climate extremes including drought, floods, change of rain season, rise in sea water and increased temperature clearly affected human population in Rufiji district and that called for livelihood diversification such as agriculture intensification in mangrove protected areas, promotion of community mangrove forests and micro-economic activities as adaptation and coping strategies that ensure sustainable use of land and natural resources. The study recommends the following: Corrective adaptation should be the central focus for effective and sustainable adaptation strategies to climate change and variability. It also recommends intervention of government and private sectors through establishment of projects and programs that promote environment and livelihood diversification of non-governmental activities in the mangrove protected areas. Collaborative development plans, projects, programmes and policies by stakeholders (Communities, NGO’s, and Government) are suggested to ensure effective mainstreaming of adaptation to induced climate change into mangrove forest. Finally the study recommends more research on non-farm income generation activities and discouragement of expansion of agriculture activities particularly paddy farming in mangrove forests in the study area
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS QC981.8.C5T34L83)
Climate changes, Magrove ecology, Rufiji district, Pwani Region, Tanzania
Luhuro, J. K. (2016) Adaptation strategies to climate change induced impacts on mangrove ecosystem: a case of Rufiji District, Pwani Region, Tanzania, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam