The effects of private tuition on formal secondary education in Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
Private tuition continues to flourish in Tanzania despite Government efforts to outlaw it, and its impact on mainstream education has not been studied. This study examined the effects of private tuition on formal secondary education in Tanzania, using a stratified sample of 347 respondents. It was conducted in four secondary schools and one private tuition centre in Dar es Salaam using documentary review, questionnaires, interviews and observation checklists for data collection. The study, inter- alia, found out that many secondary school students attended private tuition regularly even though their mainstream schools were better off materially compared with the tuition "school". The mainstream schools were, however, characterized with teacher shortages, -poor teaching, and with teachers who skipped topics in the syllabus. In contrast, the tuition teachers were more available, came to class better prepared and assessed their clients more frequently. Over 67% of the student respondents indicated that generally students passed important examinations due to participation in private tuition, and about 73.27% of them attended after-school and vacation tuition daily except on weekends. Private tuition may supplement mainstream schooling, but it also impedes effective curriculum implementation. Some tuition students disrupted teaching in the formal classroom by posing a challenge to their teachers and by skipping classes due to the belief that the missed classes can be compensated through private tuition. However, they also asked constructive questions and assisted the non-tuition student, particularly in group work activities. The study concludes that, in the context of the weaknesses and problems in the mainstream classrooms, private tuition generally supplements mainstream secondary education in Tanzania. It strongly recommends that the Ministry of Education and Culture should take advantage of the current reforms in education to implement necessary measures and processes to ensure effective teaching and learning in the mainstream classrooms.
Available in print form, Eat Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library,(THS EAF LB1565.M4)
Education, secondary, Tanzania, Study and teaching
Merisali, E. K. (2004) The effects of private tuition on formal secondary education in Tanzania. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.