The relationship between self-concept, Socio-Economic status and the school academic achievements among Tanzania primary school pupils

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University of Dar es Salaam
There have been numerous complaints from same Tanzanians that since independence the national education system has not been efficient enough in educating the children. There have been complaints that the standards of education have been falling for almost two deeds now. Inefficiency in the education system is manifested in the low academic achievements in schools among many children. It is this low school performance which makes the parents as well as other concerned peoples ask themselves why some school children are high and others are low achievers in their academic tasks. There might be many reasons as to why some children source high and others low marks at school. Some of the possible reasons might be inefficient teachers, lack of school facilities, children’s poor health, the family background, the cultural up-bringing backgrounds, heredity factors, socio economic status, self-concept and the like. The aim of this study was to find out the impact of socio economic status and self-concept on school academic achievements of primary School children. There were three hypotheses of the study. The first hypothesis stated that children with positive self-concept were likely to be high academic achievers at school than these with negative self-concept. The second hypothesis assumed that children from rich socio economic status background were possibly high academic achievers than those from low socio economic status. The third hypothesis stipulated that children whose socio economic background was rich had probably positive self-concept. The findings of the study supported the first and the third hypotheses. The findings of the first hypothesis achievements were related to positive and negative self-concept respectively. The possible reason to this was probably that high and low academic achievers had the respective high and low self-perception of their academic abilities. The findings of the second hypothesis showed that socio economic status was not related to school academic achievements. The probable reason as to why this hypotosis was not in line with the findings was most likely that in Tanzania, most of the school children, regardless of their socio economic status seem to aspire academically high. This high academic aspiration is possibly motivated by the need to achieve so that their future expectations as well as the expectations of their parents on them (the children) may be obtained. Some of these expectations are probably like securing good paid employments, attainment of high rank positions and prestige in the society, to gain competence in masterly skills and the like. The findings of the third hypothesis indicated that rich and poor socio economic status was related to positive and negative self-concept respectively. This was so due to the possible reasons that children from both, rich and poor socio economic backgrounds had positive and negative self-concept respectively about their family status. Since the study has found out that there is some inter-relations between self-concept and school achievements, it has been recommended that parents as well as teachers should be responsive and practitioners of the positive ways of rearing children at home and at school so that they nurture and foster the development of positive self-concept in the child. It is through development and maintenance of this positive construct of one’s perception of his own personality that an individual develops fully his mental abilities which enable him to become a healthy active and productive member in his society.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF LB1513.K24)
Academic achievements, Education, primary, Tanzania
Kasanga, Lucy Zakaria (1983) The relationship between self-concept, Socio-Economic status and the school academic achievements among Tanzania primary school pupils, Master dissertation, Master dissertation