Strategies employed by school administrators to cope with insufficient educational resources in Tanzania’s public primary schools

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study investigated the strategies school administrators employ to cope with insufficient educational resources in Tanzania’s public primary schools using Rungwe district schools as a case study. Specifically, the study aimed at determining the status of the existing educational resources in primary schools, exploring the strategies head teachers employ to cope with insufficient educational resources and examining the implication of the strategies head teachers employ in the provision of quality education. The study adopted Qualitative approach and was informed by a case study design specifically multiple embedded case study design. The sample from which the information was generated composed of two district educational officers, two district school inspectors, seven head teachers, seven academic teachers, twenty one teachers and forty two pupils. Purposive sampling and stratified sampling techniques were employed to get a sample of 81 respondents. Interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), documentary review and observation techniques were employed to collect requisite data. Data obtained from interviews and FGDs were analysed using Miles and Huberman’s model of qualitative data analysis, whereas those obtained through documentary review and observations were subjected to content analysis and visual analysis. The study established that both physical facilities and instructional resources in primary schools were insufficient; primarily due to insufficient funding, increased enrolment but without concomitant educational resources, misuse of funds directed to schools and failure to provide appropriate resources primary schools actually needed. Moreover, the study established that head teachers employed different strategies to cope with the challenges. These include involving parents and the community, strengthening self-reliance activities, seeking support from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and borrowing some educational resources. The schools also resorted to double shifts and double sessions, combining streams, working on a tight budget, sharing of some resources as well as using temporary buildings and putting in extra hours. The head teachers also had to contend with unwilling parents and the community, political interference and lack of school expansion space. Nevertheless, the strategies employed were found to be ad hoc and aimed at mitigating the challenges of insufficient educational resources and attendant impacts but were impotent in arresting further deterioration of the education system in primary schools. Thus, the researcher concludes that there was a need to find a lasting solution to this seemingly intractable problem. Basing on these findings and conclusions, the researcher recommends that teaching and learning resources should be an integral in planning for educational expansion. Also, there was a need for more capacity building programmes for head teachers, teachers and the community for them to be empowered to handle successfully the educational resource challenge primary schools face. Furthermore district educational officials should asses the type of resources needed by schools and the planning for school location should recognize space for further expansion
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF LB2831.926.T34K32)
School principals, Public Primary Schools, Educational resources, Tanzania
Kaduma, K. (2014) Strategies employed by school administrators to cope with insufficient educational resources in Tanzania’s public primary schools, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam