Socio-economic and environmental impacts of coastal tourism on local communities in Nungwi rural shehia, Zanzibar

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study is about coastal tourism development and its impacts on the socio-economic and environments of coastal areas of Nungwi. The main objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of coastal tourism on locals in Nungwi Rural Shehia, Zanzibar. Also, the main objective narrowed to specific objectives. Firstly, to determine involvement of local communities in coastal tourism. Secondly, to assess the role of different actors and their socio-economic benefits from coastal tourism. Lastly, the study examined the impacts of coastal tourism activities on the environment. To reach the objectives of the study in Nungwi Rural Shehia seven villages were selected namely Muanda, Banda Kuu, Mji Kati, Mgagadu, Kiungani, Kikwajuni, and Kendwa Mchangani. About 10% of the households were selected as a sample to represent the rest which was about 200 households, focus group discussions had 10 respondents and 9 respondents as key informants. The heads of the households were also interviewed. Also, the coastal tourist managers were interviewed in five coastal tourist hotels in Nungwi. The Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software’s were used to analyze the data. Tables, Graphs and Charts were used to present the study findings. The findings indicated that the development of coastal tourism along the coastal area has become a very important economic activity although most of the coastal areas are not well developed in terms of social, economic and environmental aspect. The government of Zanzibar since the 1980s had been trying to put much effort in promoting coastal tourism in order to enhance the development of the country’s economy. Ironically, coastal tourism leads to coastal natural resources degradation and has disturbed the coastal tourist sites and ecosystem in the study area. The study findings revealed that coastal tourism had contributed very little to socio-economic and environmental development of the local communities as one of the actors of coastal tourism. The findings further revealed that Nungwi has been affected by multiple coastal tourism activities due to poor planning and management which accelerated the vulnerability to negative social and economic change. Moreover, the presence of large number of hotels has often had negative impacts for the sustainable use of the existing coastal resources, hence affected the integrity of the ecosystem. However, some recommendations have been proposed to improve coastal tourism and enhance sustainable coastal based tourism along the coastal areas. Lastly, in order to accrue the expected tourism benefits without jeopardizing the existence resources, the study suggests that the Government of Zanzibar should incorporate sectoral and institutional coordination, community participation in every beginning tourism projects and Environmental Impact Assessments before coastal tourism projects implementation in order to minimize the prevailing conditions.
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Ecotourism, Environmental impacts, Nungwi, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Kitumbu, L.G.(2013). Socio-economic and environmental impacts of coastal tourism on local communities in Nungwi rural shehia, Zanzibar. Master dissertation, univewrsity of Dar es Salaam. Available at (