An investigation on the factors and measures for examination malpractices in form four national examinations: a case study of Arusha District Council Secondary Schools in Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study investigated factors and measures for examination malpractices in the national Form Four examinations in Arusha district council in Tanzania. The study was guided by the conceptual framework which was adopted and modified from Denga (1993) and Abert Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning theory. The objectives were focused on the factors influencing examination malpractice in Form Four national examinations, examination malpractice technique used by students in the examinations and the mechanisms that could be used to curb the problems of examination malpractice. The study employed mixed method research approach, concurrent triangulation design, questionnaires, focus group discussion and interviews as method for data collections. Moreover purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain the participants involving Form Four students, teachers, academic masters, head of schools and schools. Furthermore, descriptive statistics and Milles and Huberman research analysis techniques were used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The findings revealed that many factors influence examination malpractices in Form Four national examinations including shortage of teaching staffs and school facilities, improper guidance and counseling, absenteeism, laziness, truancy, desire to produce good results or stiff competitions to produce good results among school staffs, administrators and managers, poor preparations and time management, poor invigilation, lack confidence, teachers involvements, poor syllabus coverage, fear of failure, desire of certificates, desire of parents to have students in better schools and secure good jobs. Also there are various examination malpractices techniques used to facilitate examination dishonesty including entering in the exam rooms with some written materials, to give students answers, examination leakage, body writing, cloth writing technique, copying method, exchanging examination answer sheets or questions papers with answers or written pieces of papers, hiding materials in the toilets, stretching heads to see other students answer sheets, communicate orally or through body language, buying of examination, picking examination of another candidate in the exams. In nutshell the study suggested several measures that could be put in place to curb or eradicate the problems of examination malpractice such as maintaining strong security of exams and exam centres, provides heavy, improving exam supervision and invigilation systems by applying advanced technology like CCTV-Cameras, increasing the numbers of supervisors, ensuring availability of enough competent teachers and learning facilities, sealing the exam packages perfectly, introducing guidance and counseling centres at every school and employing specialist counselors, strong inspections of students, lavatories/toilets and exam rooms, increase payment for teachers, supervisors, invigilators and other examination officials, proper and well preparation of students. The study recommended that the government through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should seal ways of examination leakages by ensuring strong security of the exams and administering strong punishment to the victims of the examination malpractice. The government should increase the salary of teachers, exam supervisor and examination officials.
Available in print form, Eat Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library,(THS EAF LB 3060.285T34N352)
Examination, Malpractice, Education, Secondary, Schools, Teachers, Students, Arusha district, Tanzania
Namboyo, E. C. (2019) An investigation on the factors and measures for examination malpractices in form four national examinations: a case study of Arusha District Council Secondary Schools in Tanzania. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.