An investigation into the practises of instructional leadership roles among heads of secondary schools in Njombe district, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study aimed at investigating the practice of instructional leadership roles among heads of secondary schools in Tanzania. The study was guided by three objectives, which were to identify the instructional leadership roles exercised by heads of secondary schools in Njombe district; examine the extent of involvement of heads of secondary schools in performing the instructional leadership roles; and explore the challenges facing heads of secondary schools in performing their instructional leadership roles. The study employed a mixed methods research approach with a concurrent triangulation research design. Data collection methods included interviews, likert scale questionnaires, and documentary reviews. The target population consisted of all heads of secondary schools, academic teachers and secondary school teachers in Njombe district. The sample size consisted of 70 participants, comprising of five (5) heads of secondary schools, five academic teachers and sixty (60) teachers in five secondary schools. Heads of schools and academic teachers were purposively selected while teachers were selected through stratified random sampling, qualitative data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis technique while quantitative data were analysed using SPSS computer programme. The findings revealed that heads of secondary schools performed some IL roles which included formulating and communicating academic goals, providing teaching and learning materials and resources, instructional supervision, protection of the allocated instructional time, improving the teaching morale for teachers as well as facilitating some capacity building programmes for teachers to improve their teaching efficiency. However, little effort was assigned to teachers’ development programs, coupled with failure in carrying out classroom observation and evaluation. Furthermore, findings revealed that the extent of heads of secondary schools’ involvement in IL roles commonly involved ensuring and maintaining high visibility in the school (M=4.00, Mo=4.0), formulating and communication school goals (M=3.73), provision of teaching incentives (M=3.72, Mo=4.0) as well as in and protection of instructional time (M=3.63, Mo=4.0). However, their involvement was rated low in monitoring and evaluating classroom teaching and learning (M=1.73, Mo=2.0), enhancing professional development (M=2.07, Mo=2.0), and monitoring students’ academic progress (M=2.20, Mo=2.0). Several factors were identified as challenges for effective practises of instructional leadership roles, including being overloaded with work, shortage of teachers especially in science and mathematics subjects, lack of teaching morale among teachers, insufficient funds, poor discipline among both teachers and students, as well as the lack of cooperation from parents. Based on these findings, the study recommended heads of secondary schools should actively and regularly carry out classroom observations and evaluate teaching in the classrooms so as to identify weaknesses and handle them. The study also recommended the heads of schools to invest more time in facilitating IL roles such as monitoring students’ academic progress and evaluating teaching and learning which were found to be the least performed IL roles.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF LB 1028.35.T34M336)
investigation, leadership
Maingi, D (2019) An investigation into the practises of instructional leadership roles among heads of secondary schools in Njombe district, Tanzania, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.