Effect of environmental changes on migration: a case study of Kondoa district

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University of Dar es Salaam
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of environmental changes on migration in Kondoa district. It also examine whether environmental degration is the main cause of migration and if there are any correlation between environmental changes and other socio-economic factors which influence out migration. The findings from the study indicated that, most of the migrants originated from the severely eroded areas that is the areas inside HADO (56.7%) followed by the areas periphery HADO (26%) and areas outside HADO (17.3%). The main reasons for this outmigration from Kondoa district are land degradation verified by land problems such as soil erosion, unfertile land, land scarcity, borders conflict and low crop yield. Others include villagization programme, economic hardships, business, marriage, education and those who followed their parents and relatives. But the economic hardship dominated as life in the place of origin was not satisfactory. Moreover there is an indication of land degradation in the area of study through deforestation, landlessness, overgrazing and overstocking which necessitated the HADO project activities such as afforestation and destocking of the whole eroded area. Furthermore, the study found out that education is not the main determinants of out migration from Kondoa district as most of the migrants are standard seven leavers; only 14.3% of respondents have secondary education. Finally, the study shows that in urban areas the migrants are involved in several economic activities as their survival strategies. These are such as farming, business and petty trade, private and government employment. There is also a link between the migrants and their place of origin. As far as the migration is concerned most of the migrants preferred to move again to other places with better economic opportunities such as Dar es Salaam city and Arusha town.
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Migration, Socio-economic aspects, Environmental conservation, Kondoa, Tanzania (district)
Abdallah, N. (1996) Effect of environmental changes on migration: a case study of Kondoa district, Masters’ dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (