A history of the Makonde migration to Mtwara from 1860s to 1960s

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study investigates the migration of the Makonde, tracing their movements from Mozambique to Mtwara in southern Tanzania from 1860’s to 1960s. It also examines the experiences of the Makonde after arriving in Mtwara. The study is based on colonial archival records, oral interviews, and secondary sources. A push-pull theoretical framework has guided the analysis of these sources. The study has identified four factors that forced the Makonde’s migration from Mozambique to Mtwara, which included slave raiding, Mfecane wars, the Portuguese invasion, and perceived economic gains in Tanganyika. In addition, the study notes that the Makonde faced many challenges in Mtwara such as despise, food shortages, poverty, and diseases. The study observes that the Makonde were not passive victims of these challenges. They created adaptive survival strategies in order to make their life bearable in Mtwara. These strategies included engagement in wage labour, engagement in peasantry agriculture, participation in petty trade, and formation of self-help schemes that provided moral and material support to the needy Makonde. The study enriches Tanzania history by uncovering the experiences and challenges which the Makonde faced in Mtwara including the survival strategies which they created in order to cope with difficult life in the new environment of Southern Tanzania.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF JV9002.J35)
Makonde(Bantu tribe), Mtwara, Mozambique, Emigration and immigration, History
Jamal, B. (2016) A history of the Makonde migration to Mtwara from 1860s to 1960s, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam