Policy planning and administration of educational innovations in Tanzania

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Mosha, H.I.J (1976) Policy planning and administration of educational innovations in Tanzania, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at ( )
This study is aimed at surveying the theoretical framework of introducing innovations into Tanzania Educational System, with a view of discovering the pattern which has been used in the country. So answers are sought for two specific problems. One being what is the procedure of introducing educational innovations in Tanzania. Secondly whether the procedures followed were consistent with the objective goals of promoting human development as spelt out in Mwongozo i.e., the involvement of the masses in decision making at policy formation, planning and administration level, and arousing their political consciousness, and promoting their creativity. Four basic methods were used in gathering the information. These were documentary review, interviews, questionnaires and participant observation. The sample constituted all the thirty-one (31) principals for the newly established Folk Development Colleges. Mailed questionnaires were sent to them. The sample also included 67 interviewees 14 of whom were Ministry officials at the headquarters, region and district; 7 heads of schools and colleges surveyed; 9 teachers 16 students randomly selected from the schools and colleges surveyed. The interviewees also included 5 TANU leaders, 3 being TANU chairmen for kwamsisi, Mlowa Barabarani and Mpunguzi and the remaining 2 being key NEC of TANU members randomly selected. Lastly 12 villagers and 4 Masons and Carpenters randomly selected. The findings based on the three case studies reflected that Educational innovations in Tanzania particularly after 1967 had basis in the Arusha Declaration. Most of the policy issues on educational innovations stem from party policy being taken as deliberate move in an attempt to solve some political, social and cultural problems of the Tanzanian Community. The masses were democratically represented in party organs. However as policy issues got to government organs for planning the implementation strategy the masses at the grassroots level were not represented. Ideas on implementation were drawn mainly from foreign experts. A number of Tanzania Educational innovations were heavily dependent on foreign aid. Since foreign aid included in some instances supply of experts their dominating role was felt mainly in the administration of the innovations. It was thus discovered that there were in many instances closer ties between the Ministry of National Education and foreign bodies or countries in the process of financing, administration and implementation of programmes than was there between the Ministry of National Education and other Ministries, or between one directorate in the Ministry and another directorate in the same Ministry. Communication was also poor between the Ministry headquarters and the region or district especially when it came to introducing innovations. The masses were only brought into picture when it came to mobilising them for implementation. The study relates that the consciousness of the masses has barely been raised. People were called to implement innovations whose objectives and outcomes were not understood to the majority. Some educators were also faced with the problem of interpreting and understanding the rationale of the different innovations properly. In addition to these it was discovered that the relationship between the school and the community was diffuse. The school had failed so far to provide incentives that would attract the community to learn from it. On the contrary the vacancy for the product of the innovations had not been created in the villages and if it was there, there were factors hampering the student from taking it up. Upon these findings it was concluded and recommended that the Ideal Model for Innovating in Socialist Aspiring Tanzania could act as a clue to some of the problems on poor communication and lack of involving the masses at different levels of policy formation, planning, financing, administration and implementation of educational innovations. The following were recommended as possible lines of action in light of the findings. (a) the need for baseline survey to ascertain feasibility of the project/programme (b) Group and Committee discussion of problems (c) Need to involve parents more in school activities (d) Need to change the reward system even more in favour of rural areas (e) Strongly felt that there was need to raise the consciousness of educators and parents through seminars, extensive use of mass media and active participation in joint endeavours. The study also points out the need for involving the party more actively in the planning and administration of the education innovations. Areas for further research are then recommended. For more illuminating ideas on educational innovations in Tanzania the text provides answers to some of the irking questions.
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Education, Tanzania, Education policies