Socio-economic effects of female migration in Tanzania: a case study of housegirls in Dar es Salaam.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study on Socio-economic effects of female migration in Tanzania aimed at identifying the main factors underlying female rural-urban migration in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at examining what leads to females in rural areas to end up in marginal jobs and the problems they face in urban areas. This was prompted by the need to reveal the impact of increasing female migration and participation in the informal sector which is in many cases neglected. A sample of 130 housegirls in Kinondoni district was randomly selected and interviewed. Generally, the study revealed that; i) The girls were aged 10 years and above with a majority of them between 15-24 years. ii) Education wise, most of them have attained primary school education. iii) With respect to marital status, the majority of the housegirls were single and, iv) Most of these girls came from former labour reserves and former plantation economy regions where the fall of world market prices affected their economies. The presence of relatives and friends in urban areas acts as a starting point to the migrants. These migrants are accommodated by relatives/friends and sometimes assist them to secured job. After being employed, these girls become fully dependent on their employers in almost everything, i.e. food, shelter and clothing. This subjects them to exploitation by their employers on the work they do. According to the nature of their work, housegirls have no other means of supplementing their incomes and therefore, they resort to stealing and prostitution. The working hours for these girls are also not well defined. Some of them work for up to 20 hours per day. Almost all of the respondents were paid below the governments' basic salary of Tshs. 17,500/=. These long working hours and tiring work subjects the housegirls to social and economic exploitation. From the findings, several recommendations are given with regard to migration in general and females migration in particular. These include; Provision of loans to youths especially female youths, so that they establish small income generating projects. Processing industries should be established in production areas. Information on migration and conditions in urban areas should be provided to enable one to make a rational decision. The two years post primary education should be emphasized to those who failed in the primary education. Rules and regulations on the employment of the housegirls should be set and women welfare policy on rights and recognition be emphasized to all women regardless of their status.
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Migration, Internal Rural- urban migration, Women, Housegirls, Domestic, Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania
Mtingwa, M. (1996). Socio-economic effects of female migration in Tanzania: a case study of housegirls in Dar es Salaam. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (