Impacts of climate change and variability on tourism: the case of KINAPA and its surrounding communities, Kilimanjaro.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study examined impacts of climate change and variability on tourism with its social economic and ecological implication to KINAPA and adjacent communities. The study assessed potential factors affecting tourism resources and activities in KINAPA. Further, it examined perception of local communities on pattern of climate change and variability, vulnerability and impacts. Moreover, it identified pattern of tourism season in KINAPA. Finally, the study analyzed socio-economic and ecological implication of Climate Change and Variability (CC&V) to KINAPA and adjacent communities. Both purposeful and random sampling was used for village and household selection in the area. Primary and secondary data both qualitative and quantitative were used in this study. Primary data was mainly collated using structured household questionnaire. PRA methods such as questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), key informant, time line, drivers of change and direct field observation were used to obtain data for CC&V impacts on resources, activities, seasonality, tourist visitation, loss of biodiversity, perceptions, socio-economic and ecological implication. Findings from the study show that natural, cultural and historical resources were affected by CC&V. There were direct and indirect elects on mountain climbing and other tourism related activities such as small business, money exchange and equipment hiring. Increased drought due to CC&V fosters forest fire, melting of the glacier and decreased hydrology. People perceived CC&V as changes in both rainfall and temperature pattern over time. Decreased glacier, dry-river beds, forest fire and outbreak of malaria was perceived as indicators of CC&V. Further the study reveal that tourism seasonality has changed from known schedule turning to clustered visitation in what was known as low season influenced by both climatic and non climatic factors. Presented calculated chi-square XZ 9.214 larger than tabulated (X: 0.05) reveals significance statistical difference in social-economic implication. Finally, cancellation of tourism bookings due to economic crisis and climate change has implication on economy. Education, capacity building, soft loans, grants were adaptation strategies adopted. It is therefore recommended that research education and capacity building should be encouraged to overcome CC&V impacts on tourism.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF QC981.8.C5T34M56)
Climatic changes, Tourist trade, Tourism, Kilimanjaro National Park, KINAPA, Tanzania
Minja, G. S. (2011). Impacts of climate change and variability on tourism: the case of KINAPA and its surrounding communities, Kilimanjaro. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.