Assessment of safety and fortification of fermented Cassava meal “mchuchume” using soybean flour and moringa oleifera leaves powder

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University of Dar es Salaam
This work assessed the safety of “mchuchume” based on cyanide and microbial contents and improved its quality through fortification. Specifically, the study examined reduction of cyanide during fermentation process to produce “mchuchume”, evaluated the sensory properties of “mchuchume” produced by closed and open fermentation, assessed nutritional composition of blended “mchuchume” and investigated microbial stability of selected blends based on total viable counts and counts of bacteria and mold/yeast. Fermentation of boiled cassava tubers was completed after 72 hours, after which the samples were mashed to produce a smooth paste known as “mchuchume”. Sensory aspects of fermentation products were evaluated using hedonic scale. Fortification was done by mixing ingredients which were “mchuchume”, soybean flour and Moringa oleifera leaves powder. Proximate and micronutrient ompositions of raw materials and blends were analyzed using standard procedures. During fermentation, cyanide detoxification occurred by descreasing cyanogenic potential to about 4.6 mg/kg. the cyanide remaining in the pulps are within maximum acceptable limit in accordance to WHO/FAO which is 10 mg/kg. organoleptic characters of fermentation products were not statistically different except for case of aroma. Soybean flour and Moringa oleifera leaves powder added in “mchuchume” increased ash, fat, protein and libre by 129% to 311%, 156% to 495%, 418% to 1069% and 11% to 44% respectively, while moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased relative to the control. The added materials increased iron, sodium and potassium by 3784% to 10656%, 69% to 256% and 254% to 633% respectively relative to the control. B-carotene in the three components blends increased when the amount of MOLP added was increasing. The three components blends developed have nutrient content that can meet Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein, iron and B-carotene for various age groups at affordable cost. Results on packing and storage of fortified “mchuchume” clearly suggested that combination of vacuum-packaging and storage at chilling temperature can prolong mchuchume’s shelf life up to 21 days of storage. It is therefore recommended to conduct further studies on stability of protein and B-carotene during storage of fortified “mchuchume”.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, (THS EAF SF99.C37A376)
Cassava, Cassava as food, Cassava industry, Fortification, Saybea Flour, Moringa, Mchuchume
Alphonce, S (2019). Assessment of safety and fortification of fermented Cassava meal “mchuchume” using soybean flour and moringa oleifera leaves powder. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam