Contribution of incentives to teacher job perfomance and student learning outcomes in Tanzania: A Comparative Survey of Secondary Schools in Muheza District

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University of Dar es Salaam,
This study set out to investigate contribution of incentives to teacher job performance and student learning outcomes in Tanzania, a comparative survey of secondary schools in Muheza District, in Tanga Region. The objectives of the study were establish forms of monetary and non- monetary incentives available in secondary schools for teachers; examine the relationship between the incentives available quality of teaching and student outcomes; identify the challenges school management face in providing incentives; and uncover the best ways of providing incentives to teachers to enhance student learning outcomes. The study was conducted in November 2016 in four schools comprising two private and two public secondary schools. In each category, the best and worst performing schools were selected. The study employed Qualitative and quantitative approach and a case study design. The study had a sample of seventy (70) respondents, made up of four (4) heads of school, one (1) District Education Officer Academics and sixty five (65) teachers. Heads of school and the District Education Officer Academics were selected by purposive sampling techniques whereas teachers were selected using stratified random sampling. Data collection instruments were interviews, questionnaire, observation and documentary review. Qualitative data were subjected to manual content analysis while quantitative data where analysed using statistical package for service solutions version 20. Data presentation was done in frequencies and percentages, tabular and narratives transcribed from voices of some respondents. The study found that monetary and non- monetary incentives provided to teachers in secondary schools were oral appreciations, payment based on performance, free breakfast and lunch, certificates of recognition, housing/housing allowance, and participation in decision making, tours, and medical allowances. Schools, which provided such incentives, had good results in their Form Four national examinations. On the other hand those which rarely provided such incentives had poor performance. Several challenges made the provision of incentives difficult. The challenges included budget constraints, de motivation due to lack of promotion, unaccountability of teacher's, Scaredness of teachers and inapplicable/poor education policy. On the whole there was a positive relationship between the provision of incentives based on teachers’ performance and their students’ learning outcomes. Thus it was recommended that the Government should formulate a clear policy on teacher motivation, which should cover the provision of incentives such as houses to teachers in the school’s vicinity, valuing teachers and allow them to air out their views. There was also a need to allocate directly adequate financial resource to the secondary education department to facilitate the provision of incentives. Also a study on similar research area can be carried out to involve more regions for comparative purposes.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF LB2842.4.T34N3758)
Teachers, Incentives, Job satisfaction, Secondary schools, Muheza district, Tanzania
Ndunguru, M R (2017), Contribution of incentives to teacher job perfomance and student learning outcomes in Tanzania: A Comparative Survey of Secondary Schools in Muheza District, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam