The tourism promotion policy in Zanzibar, 1984-1992: an integrated approach to policy evaluation

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University of Dar es Salaam
Since1984 the Zanzibar government has been taking several measures to promote the tourist industry as a means for economic diversification and foreign exchange earnings. The performance of the industry has not been as impressive as was supposed to be. As a result, the sector has now become a very controversial issue. Three streams of views have emerged: those in support of the industry, those who are against, and those who are indifferent. The central concern of this study, therefore, was to attempt to understand that controversy by undertaking a study of tourism promotion policy from 1984 to 1992. The study intended to examine how the tourist policy and practices facilitate development of the sector and how far the policy takes into account the social, cultural and environmental context of the people. It adopted an "integrated approach," i.e. one which uses multiple methods of inquiry: quantitative and qualitative methods, factual economic analysis and value ethical analysis. The study finds that the poor performance of the sector had its roots in the policy itself in that the most pertinent issues in the policy were not clarified, including questions of ownership, role of government and private sector (domestic and foreign). Mode of organization, and pace, volume and type of tourism to be developed. The study also establishes that the deficiencies policy content has been by and large, a consequence improper policy formulation process in terms of the procedures and actors involved. Although most Zanzibaris promotion of the industry, it has been discovered that no room for popular participation and expert advice. It is the executive powers and foreign influences that have been a dominant role in the policy process. The general policy performance has not been encouraging. Whereas the volume of tourist arrivals and accommodating facilities has been rapidly increasing, the amount of and foreign exchange earned is unproportional to the volume of tourism. This is largely due to the large foreign ownership content and the use of a large content of imported goods industry. Besides, the study has observed some negative sociocultural effects and problems in the environmental, land allocation and leasing processes which are also the outcome of lack of proper policy, planning and institutional mechanisms for implementation, monitoring and control of tourist projects. Finally, it is the contention of the study that benefits from tourism could be maximized and negative effects alleviated depending on the nature of the policy content and processes. In this regard the study recommends formulation of a more comprehensive policy that can take into account economic, social, cultural and environmental concerns.
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Tourism trade, Tanzania (Zanzibar), Tourist trade and state, Tanzania
Bakari, M. A. (1993) The tourism promotion policy in Zanzibar, 1984-1992: an integrated approach to policy evaluation, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (