The later stone age of Endadu rock shelter, Babati District, northern Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The great need to conduct archaeological research at Endadu rock shelter. Babati district in Manyara Region was due to observed endangered. LSA deposit as a result of ongoing treasure hinting activities. It was also necessary to conduct research in the area so as to establish Early Holocene LSA culture history by studying lithic artifacts which were well stratified in the site. This was important because, knowledge of LSA occupation in Babati district was absent. In this study, archaeological excavation was conducted as a key aspect in the acquisition of subsurface data. Data analysis was based upon a system developed by Dr. Audax, Z.P. Mabulla and artifacts were typed according to Mehiman’s (1989) typology. The lithic typological variations observed from bottom to top levels of excavated units have resulted in construction of three LSA assemblages and hence cultural history of Endadu rock shelter, Babati district. The study shows that Endadu Early LSA people settled in the site around 21,000 BP followed by A ceramic LSA people who were at the site around 8,100 BP. The last occupants of Endadu rock shelter were Ceramic LSA, the community that made microlithic stone tools but also used pottery around 5,400 BP. The significant part of this study is that early Holocene site inventory and cultural chronology of East Africa have gained some new archaeological data. New study is recommended in future to find source of obsidian as exotic lithic raw materials recovered in Ceramic LSA. A good idea will be conducting comparative chemical element study as well as hydration analysis between obsidian artifacts found at Endadu rock shelter and volcanic lithic raw materials from Njorowa Gorge in Kenya which is the possible source suggested by this study.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark ( THS EAF GN776.42M53)
Stone age, Endadu rock shelter, Babati district, Tanzania, northern
Mjema, E (2008) The later stone age of Endadu rock shelter, Babati District, northern Tanzania, Master dissertation, Univeristy of Dar es Salaam