Leadership and management strategies of Tanzania’s outstanding schools

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University of Dar es salaam
This study investigated the leadership and management strategies of Tanzania’s outstanding schools. Specifically, the study was aimed at investigating the schools’ leadership and management strategies that contribute to the outstanding performances and exploring the leadership and management challenges the schools’ under study face. The study employed a qualitative approach. The areas of study were in Kinondoni District of Dar es Salaam Region, Bagamoyo District in Coast Region and Mbeya city of Mbeya Region. The sample was composed of 34 respondents (three heads of school, 16 teachers and 15 students selected through the use of purposive and simple random sampling. Data were collected through interviews, focused group discussion, observation and documentary review. The data collected through interviews were analysed by using Miles and Huberman Model of qualitative data analysis. This involved the use of qualitative data Display Matrices, with some direct quotations from the respondents integrated in the narrative report. The data obtained through observation and documentary review were subjected to content analysis. The pictures were analysed using visual content analysis. The major findings of the study show that best outstanding schools applied both leadership and management strategies to enhance school performance. These leadership strategies were identified as formulation of school vision, mission, and goals which established the direction of the school; teamwork; frequent communication; and good relationship. Management strategies included: ensuring the availability of a conducive school environment, offering of teachers’ professional training and development opportunities, employing teachers with impeccable professional credentials and strict adherence to the school time table. Leadership challenges included: disappointment from parents, poor system of communication from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, and unstable national curriculum. Management challenges were also high costs in hiring experts to train teachers on how to implement and accommodate curriculum changes. Based on these findings, the study recommends the following: heads of the schools’ outstanding should keep on applying leadership and management strategies and the government to encourage poor performing schools to use various leadership and management strategies. Moreover, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training should make sure that important information about curriculum and syllabi changes reaches the school promptly. Also, the Tanzania Institute of Education should make sure that changes in curriculum and syllabi are accompanied by the provision of new text-books and National Examination Council of Tanzania should be consistent with curriculum to be used in the examinations. On the whole, the study concludes that the outstanding schools’ use various leadership and management strategies which enhance their overall school performances.
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School management and organization, Tanzania
Kimboka, C.T.A(2012), Leadership and management strategies of Tanzania’s outstanding schools , master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (