Causes and effects of mal-employment among young graduates in Tanzania :a case of Dar es Salaam region

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes and effects of mal-employment among young graduates in Tanzania. Specifically the study examined the prevalence of mal-employment among young graduates; explored the causes of mal-employment among young graduates; and investigated the effects of mal-employment among young graduates. A survey design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed. Triangulation of different methods of data collection was used, including questionnaires, interviews and documentary review. The study had a sample size of 185 respondents, made up of 160 young graduates’ selected using snowballing sampling and 25 employers obtained through purposive sampling. Data were collected from different employment organisations from three municipalities of Dar es Salam region, namely Temeke, Kinondoni and Ilala and were analysed. Quantitative data, for example, were analysed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Multiple Response Analysis was used to analyse data related to causes and effects of mal-employment. The software facilitated simple quantified data which were analysed in terms of frequencies and percentages and presented in form of tables and graphs. Qualitative data, on the other hand were subjected to content analysis. The study found that there was high prevalence of mal-employment in various employment sectors, where education sector found to be the leading sector which had 35 (21.87%) mal-employed staffs, followed by banking sector 30 (18.75%), transportation sector 10 (6.25%) and hotel being the least 4(2.5%).Also the study revealed that Education professionals 13 (8.12%) found to be more prone to mal-employment, followed by Sociology 11 (6.87%), Accountancy 10 (6.25%) and Agro-economics profession being the least 2 (1.25%).And the most leading causes were found to include lack of related job opportunities, shortage of related skilled people, poor working conditions, poor payment, corruption and lack of work experience. Also, the study found that the most prevalent negative effects of mal-employment included shortage of related skilled people, increasing training cost, increasing unemployment, poor work performance and lower productivity. Nevertheless, the study also revealed that positive effects of mal-employment were the, decrease in unemployment, an increase in productivity and an improvement in the people’s lives. The study concluded that mal-employment among the young graduates had more negative than positive effects. The study recommends that the regional and municipal government authorities should advise and cooperates with the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT), Ministry of Labour, Prime Minister Office, regional Administration and Local Government (PMO-RALG), other various employment agencies and training institutions to address the challenges associated with causes and effects of mal-employment.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Classmark (THS EAF HD5709.2.T34M554)
Underemployment, Graduates, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mligiliche, T.T. (2014) Causes and effects of mal-employment among young graduates in Tanzania :a case of Dar es Salaam region, Masters’ dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam