Tense and aspect systems in kinyakyusa

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study seeks to provide a systematic description of tense and aspect systems (henceforth, T/A) in Kinyakyusa. In its endeavour, this study documents the morphological forms and the lexical items which mark T/A as appearing in verbs in affirmative constructions in Kinyakyusa. The primary data for this study was collected from Nkunga ward in Rungwe district in Tanzania. The target population was all the native adult speakers of Kinyakyusa aged 50 years and above. Sources of data included oral literature, documentary and T/A questionnaires. Also the study is based on both cognitive and linear models. Kinyakyusa reveals four types of verbs: stative verbs for example nunga (smell/stink); inchoative verbs for example ghagha (turn sour); activity verbs for example nua (drink); and terminative verbs for examplepasuka (split/burst/explode). There are eight T/A formatives in Kinyakyusa whereas four are tense formatives which occur in pre-root positions and four are aspect formatives which occur in post-root positions. Tenses found are present, recent past, remote past and future. Examples of temporal adverbials include ulu (now), nulubhunju (in the morning) and lijholo (long time ago). Aspects in Kinyakyusa are habitual, progressive and perfective which are associated with adverbials like bhwila/bhwila bhwila (often/every time or always) and ulu/lululu (now/just now). In Kinyakyusa the auxiliary verb kujha (to be) co-occurs with other forms to form tense patterns. For example, it combines with -a- form and a completive marker -He to form past perfect aspect. Also it takes other morphemes and shapes to form other tenses, for example, tuali (we were) which indicates past tense.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF P294.2L87)
kinyakyusa, lexical, auxiliary verb, Nkunga ward, oral literature, documentary
Lusekelo, A (2007) Tense and aspect systems in kinyakyusa, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.