Educational development in mainland Tanzania: a tripartite responsibility: 1961-1994

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University of Dar es Salaam
Educational development process has always been a cooperative endeavour involving the government the non-governmental agencies and the general public. The nations that have been successful in this area, have always upheld the spirit of cooperation. Tanzania government in the 1970s practiced the system of going it alone in education delivery and management. After two decades of this practice however, it became a truism that there is no Tanzanian way in educational development. The traditional system of cooperation is now again the option. This study traces the development of education in Mainland Tanzania since independence to 1994, with its focus on cooperation in education. The study shows that in the 1960s, the independent government enhanced the cooperative principle in education. With the 1967 socialist orientation however, the government assumed central management of the education system, a move taken in 1970. This move went concurrently with state monopoly control of the economy. State control of the economy and the social service sector was regarded as an essential socialist strategy for facilitation of quick and even national development. With time however this strategy proved unsuccessful. The statized economy lacked dynamism and thus failed to generate sufficient resources for national development need. The unfavourable terms of international trade, weather hazards and other factors produced further adverse effects upon the economy leading to a crisis situation. The educational sector which at this time depended mainly on resources from the central government suffered a serious crisis of scarcity of resources. The economic crisis experienced, called for economic reforms which affected further the education sector. The situation necessitated the current move of revitalizing the spirit of cooperation in education. The study concludes that the future success of education in Tanzania depends on greater enhancement of the spirit of cooperation and peoples initiatives in that sector, as well as more active people's participation in the economic development process.
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Education, History, Tanzania
Tarimo, E. C. J. (1996) Educational development in mainland Tanzania: a tripartite responsibility: 1961-1994,Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (