Education for all inTanzania 2000-2003: lessons from Dodoma urban and Kondoa districts.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The need to investigate commitment of the Tanzanian government in ensuring basic education for all as it was enshrined in the World Forum on Education for All (EFA) held in Dakar, Senegal, in 2000 necessitated this study to be conducted. This study focused on primary schools of Dodoma Urban and Kondoa districts. Twelve primary schools in the districts were sampled. A descriptive survey method was used for data collection. The main instruments used were questionnaires, interview, documentary reviews, direct observations, and focus group discussions. A total of 785 respondents were involved in this study. The Heneveld Model of general conceptual framework for examining educational quality through the primary perspective of the school and classroom was adopted for the purpose of guidance. Four research tasks were used so as to guide the study in order to seek data on supporting inputs, school management, school climate, teaching/learning process and student outcomes towards educational quality improvement as per the requirements of the Heneveld's model. Findings revealed that the context of EFA in ensuring quality basic education to all school age children by 2005 was still controversial in Tanzania as some major issues related to quality education were not yet resolved. In addition, it was revealed that inputs to sustain provision of quality primary education were not satisfactory. Schools' physical conditions in terms of furniture and buildings were in shortage. Teachers who implement the primary school syllabi in some subjects had not undergone any training to date. Deficiencies in the provision of necessary inputs to primary schools had forced teachers to resort to lecture methods at the expense of participatory approaches. Subsequently, performance of surveyed schools in terms of primary school leaving examination (PSLE) was poor. The welfare support such as feeding, first aid kits, guidance and counselling were not provided in schools. Recommendations in the form of strategies have been suggested of which, if effectively and concurrently implemented in line with Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP), may improve the quality of primary education in Tanzania hence meet the Dakar Framework for Action by 2005.These include (a) formulation of strategies to retain and discourage dropouts (b) effective planning based upon syllabi and re-development of primary school leaving examination and (c) the need for cooperation with external sources and other education stakeholders that may be having relevant expertise related to provision of quality basic education.
Education primary, Tanzania, Dodoma (urban), Kondoa District
Athman, A. (2004). Education for all inTanzania 2000-2003: lessons from Dodoma urban and Kondoa districts. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (