Underfunding and institutional functioning experience from Teachers' Colleges in Tanzania.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study investigated the impact of underfunding on educational institutions functioning. Specifically the study examined how the teachers colleges coped with the financial constraints effects. The study was conducted in three teachers colleges namely Butimba, Ndala and Tarime. The open system model as developed by Khan and Katz (1966) and modified by Scheerens (1992) was remodified and employed in the study. From the model five tasks were developed and formed the study focus. These were: (i) determination of the allocation and utilization of financial resources. (ii) determination of the condition of available infrastructure. (iii) analyzing the amount of time used for teaching and learning. (iv) examining the teachers and students welfare, and teachers professional development. (v) assessment of the quality and quantity of available teaching-learning materials. Principals, Deans of Students, Academic Deans and Heads of Departments were the main respondents of this study. Students views were represented by their students Chairmen, Ministers for Academics, Transport, Accommodation and Cafeteria services. The respondents were selected by virtue of the positions they held in their colleges. The data were mainly collected through documentation, interviews, checklists observations, and discussions. Documentation of ration ledgers, vote books, warrant of funds, log books, school calendar, files, estimate and budget files was done. The four techniques supplemented each other. The data collected was subjected to simple statistics and qualitative analysis techniques. The findings indicated that the funds allocated to the colleges were inadequate and declining overtime. This resulted in the failure by the colleges to maintain infrastructure, purchase adequate teaching-learning materials, utilize time on task efficiently and effectively, provide adequate welfare services to teachers and students. The strategies employed to cover the financial gap included the following: slashing of food rations; provision of low quality food, doing away with items such as teaching practice, monthly examinations and tests; extension of holidays and midterm breaks, cancellation of inter-college sports competition, removal of intercollege zone examinations, and elimination of study tours. Colleges also had to operate on credit basis and as a result principals were sued in courts for failure to settle bills. Teachers were demoralized because of poor living conditions caused by low salaries, lack of incentives and inadequate and unconducive accommodation. To cover the financial gap teachers concentrated more on informal sector activities than teaching. College programmes and syllabi remained uncovered due to shortage of basic facilities, materials and time for executing the programmes. On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that user fees and involvement of private sectors should be encouraged to contribute to the provision of teacher education. Teachers salaries should be adjusted to match with the current pressure of market price increase.
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Teachers Colleges, Finance, Tanzania
Rwilomba, F. K. P. N. (1995). Underfunding and institutional functioning experience from Teachers' Colleges in Tanzania. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (