Water use conflicts, underlying causes and its implications on community livelihoods: a case of Kahe ward in Moshi district, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
Conflicts over water resources are not new to communities in undertaking communal activities. This is due to the fact that, water resources are finite and are continuously being over-stretched by the ever growing water related demands and rapid population growth. Local users compete to obtain their share, which can intensify existing tensions and sometimes lead to violence where the supply of water does not meet demand. This research examines and describes the underlying causes of water use conflicts and its implications on community livelihoods in Kahe, Moshi District. Primary data were collected through household surveys using a questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants from local, central governments, estate investors and other private entity. Secondary data was obtained from both published and unpublished sources. Findings from the study show that there are multiple water uses ranging from farming and non-farming activities. The increase in activities leads to competition in water among users especially those who reside downstream. Due to the competition and diminishing water availability, conflicts have risen between the different water users. The research analyses water conflicts in relation to two user groups; irrigation farmers and pastoralists. Conflicts related to irrigators occur between surrounding community and investors are perceived as using too much water. The pastoralist conflicts occur when cows enter into paddy fields. Underlying causes of these conflicts is complex and multi-dimensional, ranging from socio-economic, political, and cultural to environmental factors. The situation has resulted in high degeneration of communities’ daily bread, reduced livelihood of local dwellers and continues to increase the likelihood of insecurity and instability at the local levels. The sad side of these conflicts is that most of the victims are civilians; mainly traditional paddy farmers. Therefore, this study recommends that, to get mutually consensus participatory and interest-based approach should be employed by institutions responsible so as to provide room for a win-win scenario.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF HD1699.T34S24)
Water supply, Water resource development, Kahe ward, Moshi district
Salmini, A.(2014) Water use conflicts, underlying causes and its implications on community livelihoods: a case of Kahe ward in Moshi district, Tanzania.Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.