Curricular content and the implementation of moral education in pre-primary education in Tanzania: the case of Kinondoni and Njombe Districts

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University of Dar es Salaam
The aim of this study was to explore the curricular content and implementation of moral education in Tanzanian pre-primary schools. Based on the three research objectives, the study was destined to: (i) examine the extent to which moral education is contained in the Tanzanian pre-primary education syllabus, (ii) investigate how moral education is taught and learned in the Tanzanian pre-primary schools and (iii) find out the challenges in inculcating moral values to Tanzanian pre-primary school children. The study employed mainly a qualitative approach informed by the case study design and was complemented by quantitative inquiry. Data pertinent to the study was collected from 105 teachers, 71 parents and 264 children from Kinondoni and Njombe districts. Purposive, stratified, random and convenience sampling were employed to obtain participants. Data were generated and collected through interviews, questionnaires, document search and observation methods. Analysis was done qualitatively and quantitatively. The review of literature covered aspects relating to ideals of moral education, the curricular issues of moral education, the ideal curricular objectives of moral education, the curricular content of moral education, the teaching strategies appropriate for moral formation, the challenges of offering moral education and the role of schools and other early – life socializing agents. Also, empirical studies were reviewed. The findings revealed that: (i) little of moral education aspects were contained in the pre-primary school syllabus, (ii) the moral education teaching strategies in pre-primary schools were diverse and (iii) various challenges (such as medium of instruction, religious fundamentalism, personal values, lack of literature on moral education and peer influence) tended to affect the moralization process of children in Kinondoni and Njombe districts. In the light of the research findings, it was concluded as follows: (i) that currently, moral education is taken as an all encompassing element fitting to any discipline specified, (ii) that the suggested teaching methods like games and plays are relevant to pre-school children, and (iii) that spiritual values do not feature explicitly in the syllabus content. Finally, the study recommends that moral education be taught as an independent discipline to all levels of study starting from pre-primary schools.
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Moral education, Primary education, Curricula, Kinondoni district, Njombe district, Tanzania
Mahali, D. B (2011) Curricular content and the implementation of moral education in pre-primary education in Tanzania: the case of Kinondoni and Njombe Districts. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at