Impacts of climate change and variability on rural livelihoods: the case of Naitolia village in Monduli district

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The university of Dar es Salaam
Climate change and variability (CC&V) is one of the greatest global challenges facing the world today. It places critical development challenges to developing countries particularly Tanzania. CC&V impacts continue to be widespread in the rural areas where livelihoods depend on natural resources and climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture. This study therefore examined the impacts of CC&V focusing on rainfall and temperature patterns on rural livelihood activities specifically on crop production and livestock keeping; and assessed the viability of coping and adaptation strategies adopted by different households to overcome the impact of climate change and variability. Both probability and non probability sampling approaches were used to obtain sample respondents from the field. Systematic sampling technique was used to obtain 100 respondents from Engusero and Ormangwai sub-wards in Naitolia village. Secondary data were collected through literature review. Focus group discussion, key informant interview, seasonal calendar, direct field observation and household questionnaire survey methods were used for primary data collection. SPSS version 16.0 and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze quantitative data. Qualitative data were summarized and analysed through theme-content technique to generate information for answering key research questions. Findings from the study have revealed that CC&V has impacted the study area. This was revealed through reduced rainfall, steady increase of temperature and frequency of dry spells and drought. The findings conform to analysis of meteorological data over the past 30 years. The study further revealed that CC&V have negatively affected crop and livestock production their main sources of livelihood through crop failures, poor harvest and/or yield, dry out of water sources, emergence of pests and diseases, and death of livestock due to shortage of water and pasture. The study further revealed that due to the impact of CC&V, local community has opted for different coping and adaptation strategies. These include adoption of drought resistant and early maturing crops, mixed cropping, food purchase, casual labouring, sale of livestock and seasonal/out migration of people and livestock to other conducive areas. This study recommended that provision of adequate knowledge on climate change and variability adaptation, improvement of extension services and socio-economic services are crucial towards achievement of long-term sustainable rural livelihoods.
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Climatic changes, Rural livelihoods, Naitolia village, Monduli district
Mutafungwa, Linda.(2012).Impacts of climate change and variability on rural livelihoods: the case of Naitolia village in Monduli district. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (