Factors influencing indulgence in extra-marital sexual affairs in the era of HIV/AIDS in Kilwa district, Lindi region

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study investigated on the factors that influenced indulgence in extra-marital sexual affairs in Masoko and Kivinje Wards in Kilwa district, Lindi region, Tanzania. It was an explorative study focused on extra-marital sexual behaviors of individual spouse based on the concept of “Be Faithful to Uninfected Partner” as far as health and development issues are concerned in the era of HIV/AIDS. The sample involved 120 people of both genders from Masoko and Kivinje Wards in Kilwa district. This study employed purposive snowball methodology to recruit respondents into the study. Primary data were collected from the field using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews. Secondary data were obtained from unofficial and official published materials including books, journals, research reports and web sites. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-cultural and economic factors which influenced indulgence in extra-marital sexual in the era of HIV/AIDS, to assess spouse’s perceptions and beliefs on sexuality and reproductive and to identify the consequences of extra-marital sexual affairs on the individual, family and national development in the era of HIV/AIDS. The study findings revealed that extra-marital sexual affairs were common behavior for different reasons by both genders. It was observed that in most cases, the behavior of having multiple partners was associated with one's pre-marital sexual behavior. The respondents acknowledged that extra-marital sexual practices had a high risk of contacting HIV/AIDS. However, none of the spouses indulged in the act used condoms even though they were available at the health facilities and private pharmacies. The study observed that the main reasons that trigger both spouses for extra-marital sexual behavior were the traditional teachings, values, myths, beliefs, misconceptions and lack of knowledge on reproductive health and sex. The popular traditional teachings and ceremonies, jando for male children and unyago for female children that takes place during initiations period are transmitted from one generation to another. These play a big role in influencing sexual behavior of a person to adulthood life. Another reason mentioned by female respondents was socio-economic factors, as most women economically depended on men. It was learned that extra-marital sexual affairs had both positive and negative impacts, physically as well as emotionally. In Focus Group Discussions women revealed the secrecy of the establishment of Kilwa Kivinje (old) town along the ocean shores. During the ongoing relationship with the Kojani fishermen from Pemba and Mafia Islands, women provided hospitality services to these stranger fishermen who were hooked emotionally as well as physically, hence involuntarily gave money to the women who used them to build modern houses with corrugated iron sheet hence establishment of the Kivinje town. However, they acknowledged that in the era of HIV/AIDS such kind of relationship is not guaranteed for development, but is highly associated with fatality as well as development deprivation from individual family to the national level. It is therefore, recommended that there should be special participatory program to teach against the behavior from the grassroots level which targeting married group and others, involving traditional and formal teachers, religious, community, policy makers, government and other stakeholders.
Available in print form
Extra-marital sex, Aduttery, Aids (Disease), Kilwa district, Lindi region
Mgine, R.C.T (2010) Factors influencing indulgence in extra-marital sexual affairs in the era of HIV/AIDS in Kilwa district, Lindi region master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at