The Revised Post-Literacy Programme and Women's Empowerment in Rural Households: a Case Study of Nachingwea District.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of the revised post—literacy programme and to determine the factors that influence women's empowerment in managing their income—generating projects and transforming their oppressive conditions in their rural households. The study examined five variables which included: women's participation in programme development, relevance of the revised post—literacy programme, the quality of literacy instructors, instructional methods, resources and other facilities, as well as women's workload. The respondents included officials from the Ministry of Education and Culture, adult education coordinators, District Commissioner as well as village government leader's, literacy instructors, as well as women participants, all of them selected through purposive and random sampling techniques. Data were collected through questionnaire and interview schedules, documentary review, researcher's own observation and a checklist. The study found out that the majority of women were not involved in making decisions at all stages of the programme development, the factor which disempowered them to manage their income generating projects and transform their oppressive conditions. Furthermore, the study found out that there was a mis-match between the post-literacy programme and the needs and interests of women; the programme was geared to enabling women fulfil more of their gender needs as occupiers of gender roles. Also, the majority of the instructors were neither qualified nor gender sensitized to teach women participants. The research findings also revealed that most of the instructional resources and other facilities were either in short supply or were completely not available in the centers; most of the women participants could not afford buying them. The research findings also showed that women, especially those living in rural areas, had heavy workload which resulted from outdated traditions and customs based on asymmetric division of labour and lack of appropriate technology. Due to these activities, women could not attend classes regularly to learn the skills which could enable them to manage income generating projects and transform their oppressive gender relations. In the light of these findings, the study recommends the following: 1. The Ministry of Education and Culture should use a community-based approach in programme planning in which participants will be greatly involved in making and effecting decisions on the programme development and implementation. 2. There is a need to modify the post—literacy programme so that its contents are based on women' s issues and concerns. 3. The district adult education co—ordinator should work out strategies to ensure that literacy instructors are trained and are gender sensitized to teach women. 4. . The Ministry of Education and Culture should also formulate a clear policy in financing the programme by involving the community to ensure that the burden of purchasing instructional resources and other facilities is shared among the ministry, the Non—Governmenta1 organizations, the district council and the village governments. 5. The Central Government should establish procedures for access to loans/ credits to ensure that low income women/ centers secure available technologies to reduce their workload. For further research the study recommends that: 1. There is a need to conduct a study to assess the needs and interests of women with a view to developing appropriate literacy programme that will take into account women's needs and interests. 2. Another research could be conducted to determine what skills and knowledge should be imparted to literacy instructors. 3. Furthermore, a study could be done to find out how the community and other Non—Governmenta1 Organisations (NGO's) could be mobilized to pull their energy and resources so as to promote the post—literacy activities in the country.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr.Wilbert Chagula Library, class mark (THS EAF LC1666.T3M55)
Education, post-literacy, Women empowerment, Nachingwea, Tanzania (District)
Mnjagila, Salum Mustafa Ramadiiani (1995) The Revised Post-Literacy Programme and Women's Empowerment in Rural Households: a Case Study of Nachingwea District, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam