Human Development Inequalities in Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
This thesis examines inequalities in Human Development in Tanzania. The UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI) and its indicator components are widely used in monitoring the global human development. As macro-level measures, these indicators are insensitive to the "within" country distribution of development. The thesis uses Tanzania Household Surveys to produce three empirical chapters, which collectively address the issue of the "within" country inequalities in human development. Chapter two reconstructs household level HDI and analyses inequalities by both income quartiles and area of residence. The chapter proposes an index, which captures the "quality of living" aspects of human life, a point missed by survival health measures. A household level link between human development and income poverty is also modelled in the chapter. Findings of the chapter suggest for notable HDI discrepancies between rich and poor and between urban and rural households. Income inequality represents the highest form of inequalities in human development in the country followed by inequality in education. Reducing income poverty shows huge positive impact on development of the poor. Chapter three uses the concentration index to quantify socioeconomic inequalities in adult health in Tanzania and decomposes the observed inequalities to their associated factors. Adult health is considered more comprehensive in measuring health outcomes of the general population compared to life expectancy. The chapter analyses both the "within" and the "between" rural-urban inequalities in health. Findings show that the country-poor whom majority were from rural areas suffered the most from ill health, inequality increased between 2001 and 2007, decreased in urban areas in favour of the poor, increased in rural areas and in favour of the rural better off. In urban areas elders especially women were vulnerable to ill health, while in rural areas the youth suffered the most from ill health. Chapter four uses sample selection model in estimating demand elasticities for secondary school enrolment in Tanzania and examines enrolment inequalities in the country. The chapter finds a selection bias in Tanzania's enrolment model, enrolment discrepancies were in favour of boys and urban children, consumption per capita positively influenced enrolment. Recently, education of household head was found more important in increasing enrolment odds than a decrease in distance to school. This implies that demand side factors became relatively more important in explaining enrolment of the children overtime. Findings of this thesis are important as they imply that pro-poor economic growth, which touches on urbanization and improving social security system and access to social infrastructure, is a way forward for Tanzania to have sustainable human development.
Available in printed form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF HC79.I5T34M32)
Income inequalities, Human development, Income distribution, Household surveys, Tanzania
Mdadila, K. (2013) Human Development Inequalities in Tanzania, Doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.