The teacher's role in the implementation of education for self-reliance with special reference to productive activities in primary schools in Mbeya District, Tanzania Mainland

dc.contributor.authorTuntufye, Nelwike Durnston
dc.description.abstractThis study attempts to examine teachers in planning and implementation of the Education for self Reliance (ESR) policy in primary schools in Tanzania Mainland. The study is done in the light of the country's emphasis on making schools self-reliant. To achieve self-reliance, the schools have been given the task of translating the ESR policy in concrete terms. The studies that have been made on ESR together with the general public impressions have hypothesized that ESR in schools is not being translated according to the ESR principles. This 1s because the primary school leavers come out of the schools with rudimentary skills which cannot make them self - reliant when they start life in the villages. Furthermore, the school leavers continue to flood the towns in search of paid jobs and they are reluctant to remain in the village. Although teachers try hard to promote ESR activities, they are still blamed for not being able to guide the youths adequately according to the policy. A case study involving 206 standard VII pupils and 26 teachers from five primary schools was mode in Mbeya District. Two schools were urban schools and three were rural schools. The study attempted to find out the roles the teachers play in planning and implementation of ESR activities. It attempted to assess the extent to which teachers involve pupils together in self reliance activities, particularly in the rural schools. In urban schools teachers, most of whom were females, took ESR policy lightly because of health problems similarly, the teachers were not involving parents and officials in the implementation of ESR activities Several schools had started to produce economically though in difficult conditions. Some schools were already feeding their pupils from food produced through self-reliance activities. The problems which faced the implementation of ESR policy in schools, were mainly due to the primary schools, curriculum which had not been reformed in response to ESR, i.e. to integrate work and study Lack of an integrated curriculum was also noticed at the training college level. Thus the colleges produced teachers who were not work- oriented and hence they were unable to translate the ESR policy in concrete practices. The schools faced acute shortage of equipment and materials thereby making the implementation of the ESR difficult. The schools lacked economic base and hence they could not buy any of the required materials Because the schools lacked appropriate tools and expertise knowledge, the skills they pro- vided through ESR activities were similar to those used by villagers. Furthermore, coordination and supervision of the ESR in schools and hence the school activities was inefficient because inspectors lacked transport. Thus the schools faced certain problems which were unknown to most officials The main solutions to most of the problems Lay in the stepping up of political education to parents and officials, The schools had to be provide with appropriate tools in ord ar to produce: economically and provide the skills appropriate to life in the villages. To make the ESR policy a reality, there was a need for the Ministry of National Education to reform the curriculum for the primary schools and training colleges to make it work-oriented. That would make the integration of work and study possible. The study revealed that some schools try hard to implement ESR policy but they get discouraged when their performance in ESR activities is not included in the fina1 assessments of the pupils, Selection to Secondary Schools continue to rely solely on academic knowledge, To make parents, teacher and pupils value ESR activities, the selection procedures must be reformed so that it includes work and academic knowledge. A beginning has been made at secondary schools' and colleges' levels. It would have been ideal if it had first started at the primary school level because the primary school level problem needs urgent attention. The posting of female teachers in urban schools should be proportional to that of male teachers. This is because some of the problems which face the urban schools are a result of female teachers. Most of the problems the schools face are expected to be solved when the villages take full control of primary school education. It is hoped that the villagers and officials of relevant skills will be more concerned than they are now in equipping the schools and in providing the skills which suit their needs.en_US
dc.identifier.citationTuntufye, N. D. (1977) The teacher's role in the implementation of education for self-reliance with special reference to productive activities in primary schools in Mbeya District, Tanzania Mainland, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at
dc.publisherUniversity of Dar es Salaamen_US
dc.subjectEducational sociologyen_US
dc.subjectCommunity and schoolen_US
dc.subjectTanzania (District)en_US
dc.titleThe teacher's role in the implementation of education for self-reliance with special reference to productive activities in primary schools in Mbeya District, Tanzania Mainlanden_US