The effectiveness of teaching environmental education through geography in Tanzania: a case study of selected schools in Mbeya region.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study sought to explore the teaching effectiveness of EE as contained in the geography form one syllabus in Tanzania secondary schools, with special reference to seven schools in Mbeya region. It adapted a conceptual framework which accommodated six variables: Teacher characteristics, student characteristics, curriculum, Teaching, classrooms and learning. This model was used by Anderson (1991) for studying and improving teacher effectiveness. The conceptual framework was found suitable because it was related to the three research tasks formulated for this study which included evaluation of the Geography form one syllabus; ability of teachers in geography, and students ability in understanding the subject. The sample population included Headmasters, teachers, students, an inspector of schools and an official of the national examinations council (N=(295) Interviews, documentary reviews and mainly, participatory observation were the main techniques used in data collection. A content analysis techniques was used to analyse the collected data. The literature review indicated that no classroom observation has been done in Tanzania on teaching EE through geography to cover both private and public secondary schools. This study is intended to fill the gap. The aggregate findings of the study revealed that teaching EE through geography in Tanzania secondary schools is both inadequate, and therefore ineffective due to a host of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including: lack of teaching resources, poor administration, poor motivation, teachers’ lack of appropriate training in EE, in appropriate curriculum and in discipline among many others. The study advances some recommendations to the teachers and students, to policy makers and suggests an area, which require further research. Recommendations to teachers and students broadly aim at creating a harmonious environment between the teachers and the students thus increasing effectiveness of teaching and learning EE. This will be achieved through creating a harmonious classroom environment and climate, classroom organisation and management, a good structure of lessons, a good communication between teachers and students and student involvement. Recommendations to policy makers aims at improving, increasing and creating teaching resources, human resources, motivation and training. Furthermore, it is suggested that the amount of research so far carried out in Tanzania on EE is not exhaustive to warrant a full launching of EE in schools and therefore, the study recommends a study on the effectiveness of teaching EE as an interdisciplinary subject in Tanzania schools be undertaken. All the above pre-supposes that the persons at each level of the educational administration structure in Tanzania possess the knowledge and skills to be able to understand what is required in implementing EE and also do have the authority and resources to do their jobs well.
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Environmental education, Educational evaluation, Case study, Tanzania
Mwasalyanda, B. T. (1996). The effectiveness of teaching environmental education through geography in Tanzania: a case study of selected schools in Mbeya region. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (