Factors informing changes in Tanzania's foreign policy: 1980-1990

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study sets out to explain and account for the changes in Tanzania's foreign policy in the period 1980s and 1990s. The basic assumption of the study is that there are differences in Tanzania's foreign policy between the two periods, that is, before mid 1980s and thereafter, The study identifies four factors (variables) which seem to have profound impact on Tanzania's foreign policy; namely changes in the global international system, the deepening economic crisis and increased dependency, the emergence of free press and the change in the Presidency from Nyerere to Mwinyi. The findings basically confirm these assumptions. On the impact of the changes in the international system, Tanzania's foreign policy has been affected in three major aspects, notably the de-emphasis of socialist principles as internal determinant of foreign policy, de-emphasis of the non-aligned movement and the decline in aid flow. The study further reveals that Tanzania's foreign policy has abandoned the previous assertiveness and become less independent partly due to the deepening economic crisis and over dependency on external sources. The change in the Presidency from Nyerere to Mwinyi has also contributed to a change in Tanzania's foreign policy indicated by a change in foreign policy style, lack of clarity in foreign policy making and emphasis on economic rather than ideological diplomacy. With regard to the impact of free press on Tanzania's foreign policy, the study shows that there has been increased exposure of foreign policy affairs to the public, change of government priorities as well as change in external relations. On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that during the 1980s and 1990s Tanzania's foreign policy pursued a different path altogether characterized by a series of changes, reversals, puzzles and inconsistencies in foreign policy matters. In this regard, the study recommends, among other things, a reformulation of the country's foreign policy so that it reflects the changes going on nationally and internationally.
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Tanzania, Foreign relations, Politics and Government, Politics and Government
Killian, B (1994) Factors informing changes in Tanzania's foreign policy: 1980-1990, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at ( )