Management and sustainability of non-formal ordinary secondary education programme in Tanzania: the case of Ilala Municipality

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University of Dar es Salaam
The need for education as an agent of development, failure of the formal education system to meet socio-economic needs, and the increase of out-of-school youths have led to positive responses from different educational institutions in establishing Non-Formal Ordinary Secondary Education Programme (NFOSEP) in Tanzania. Since management plays a pivotal role in the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of the programme, it was envisaged that a well established organizational structure, operational guidelines, availability and mobilization of resources, and effective monitoring and evaluation in the programme would have greater influence towards achievement of educational objectives hence programme sustainability. It is on this premise that this study examined the extent to which management contributed to the sustainability of the NFOSEP in Tanzania. The study adapted the Stufflebeam (2003) evaluation model, and Heneveld (1994) school effectiveness model in constructing the framework which would guide the investigation. Qualitative approach based on a case study design was opted, and the study was conducted in four adult education centers within Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam. The sample for the study included 40 adult learners, 16 teachers, 4 center co-ordinators, 1 Municipal Adult Education Officer, 1 Resident Tutor, 3 Officials from the Institute of Adult Education (IAE), and 1 Adult Education Director from the Ministry of Education. Data were generated through interview, documentary review, focus group discussion, observation checklist and were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that organizational structure for non-formal secondary education programmes in the country was fragmented and the model of Open and Distance Learning management was not grounded at the local level. There was poor co-ordination and conflicting roles caused by lack of clear operational guidelines developed on a partnership basis which created a gap among the stakeholders in operating NFOSEP. There was inadequacy of resources like instructional materials, buildings and other facilitating equipment in all centers, and some activities were not done on time due to financial constraints that adversely affected teaching and learning process. The system of monitoring was also not continuously done, and there was no evaluation system in assessing the impact of the programme to the learners. Learning objectives were only measured quantitatively. Evaluation of the required inputs, efficiency and effectiveness of learning process was not given a priority which affected the outcomes as well. The study recommends that Ministry of Education should introduce a comprehensive organizational structure for Non-Formal Education that links all key figures responsible for education system and its management should be grounded at the local level in a decentralized form. It should also develop clear operational guidelines on a partnership basis. There is a need for substantial internal financing by the government to ensure continuation of the programme. IAE should also assess the qualitative achievement of the programme and evaluation of the required inputs should be given a priority for achieving the intended goals. Finally, the research recommends a specific study on impact of the programme to the learners and community at large.
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Non-formal education, Secondary education programme, Management, Tanzania
Shirima, G. H. (2010) Management and sustainability of non-formal ordinary secondary education programme in Tanzania: the case of Ilala Municipality. Master Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at