Factors affecting effective planning and implementation of educational projects and programmes in Tanzania: a case study of primary education programme (PEP)

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect planning and implementation of educational projects and programmes in Tanzania. The study was guided by five objectives, namely: investigation of the strengths and weaknesses of the planning and the involvement of people in the process; the use of the past information in planning and implementation of the programme; assessment of the availability and reliability of resources; and evaluation of implementation strategies of the pilot phase in order to ascertain the potential for replication. The review of literature consisted of both theoretical stances and empirical findings. It enabled the researcher to draw ideas from different planning theories in order to develop an ppropriate model for data collection and analysis.The study employed two sampling techniques which were purposive and random. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents while the random sampling technique was employed in getting the fifteen (15) schools.Data were collected through documentary review, interview schedules, and observation. The documentary review covered primary as well as secondary sources of information. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with subjects in the study sample, and items on the interview schedule were semi-structured. Participant observation was employed whereby the researcher participated physically in different activities. The findings revealed that during the planning of PEP the needs of the target population were not analysed, and that, the target population was not involved in the planning process. However, they indicated that the needs of schools were analysed and accommodated in the planning process. The findings revealed also that there was no study that was made on the study of past educational projects and programmes in order to discover the causal factors for their failures. The past information was also not used during the planning of PEP. The failure to use the past information resulted PEP to use the failed strategies that were being used by Tanzania since 1960s in implementing the programme. The findings indicated further that there were inadequate resources for the running and sustaining the programme. Salaries for the attached workers were insufficient. The problem about this, however, was revealed to be the structure within which PEP operated. There were no enough funds for running the inservice and upgrading course in the TCS. Funds were not available in time when they were required. Transport facilities were in adequate. Lastly, teaching and learning facilities were not enough.Evidence revealed furthermore that the pattern of administration of PEP was inappropriate for the successful implementation of the programme. Other ministries which would assist the smooth implementation of the programme were not involved. The REO and his entire office were not involved in the administrative system. The roles of DEO, his office and DED were not clearly defined. The Regional PEP co-ordinator and his office were powerless in decision making. All power was centralized. The findings indicated also that PEP achieved some achievements in its implementation such as construction of two Teacher Centres, provision of short training and up grading courses, making available the teaching and learning materials and involvin g People in the Process of implementation.Weaknesses that were identified included lack of motivation of workers, staff, absence of collaboration of PEP with other agencies, centralization of power; failure to educate people, and failure of training workers. It was recommended that the Government and DANIDA should analyse the needs of target population before embarking on the next phase of programme implementation, use the past information, motivate both workers and teachers, and train the attached workers. It was also recommended that PEP should involve other ministries and offices dealing with Primary education in the process of implementing the programme. Decentralize its power to lower offices and establish specific projects within PEP dealing with specific activities. It was suggested that further research should be undertaken in those areas which have currently been covered by PEP including Zanzibar. It was also suggested that a study be conducted which will look at how teachers should be motivated.
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Education, primary, Tanzania, Activity programs
Gekondo, M. W. (1996) Factors affecting effective planning and implementation of educational projects and programmes in Tanzania: a case study of primary education programme (PEP), Masters’ dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (